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23 Cards in this Set

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What are the 4 types of membranes?
serous

mucous

synovial

cutaneous
smsc
What does the serous membrane consist of and what is it's function?
consists of a layer of simple squamous epithelium and loose connective tissue

forms the lining of the thorax (parietal pleura), the abdomen (parietal peritoneum), they also cover organs within the cavities

these cavities lack openings to the outside of the body

Function: the cells secrete serous fluid which lubricates the membrane
What does the mucous membrane consist of and what is it's function?
it consists of epithelial tissues and loose connective tissue

it lines cavities and tubes that open to the outside of the body

it includes the oral and nasal cavity, respiratory, urinary, reproductive and digestive systems

Function: the cells secrete mucus
What does the synovial membrane consist of and what is it's function?
they consist of fibrous connective tissue over loose connective tissue and adipose tissue. they form the inner linnings of joints

Found: at the end of bones and freely movable joints

Function: cells secrete synovial fluids which lubricates the ends of bones
What does the function of the cutaneous membrane?
forms a protective covering, helps regulate temperature, repels water, houses sensory receptors, synthesizes chemicals and excrete wastes
What are the 3 major parts of the skin?
the epidermis

the dermis

the subcutaneous layer
What is the epidermis and what is it's function?
it is a layer of stratified squamous epithelium that lacks blood vessels

Function: it protects the underlying tissues against water loss, mechanical injuries and harmful chemicals

specialized cells called melanocytes, produce melanin
How many melanocytes do males and females have?
everyone has the same number of melanocytes, but a different number of melanin
What is stratum basale?
the layer close to the dermis
What is the stratum corneum?
the outer layer of the epidermis that is composed of dead cells
What is keratinization?
when the dead cells become ahead
What is the dermis made up of and what is it's function?
it is composed of fibrous connective tissue, epithelial tissue, smooth muscle tissue, nervous tissue, and blood vessels

Function: it binds the epidermis to the underlying tissues
What does the subcutaneous layer consist of and what is it's function?
Consist: loose connective tissue and adipose tissue and blood vessels

Function: adipose tissues serve as an insulator, which conserves body heat
What is the function of the blood vessels?
they supply nutrients to the cells
How does hair develop, where is hair located and how are there different colors?
Develop: from the base of a hair follicle when epidermal cells divide, grow and become keratinized

Location: all over the body, except the palms, soles, lips, and external reproductive organs

Color: it's due to the amount of melanin produced

*arrector pili muscle causes hair to stand up
What do the sebaceous glands do and what is it's function?
it secretes an oily mixture called sebum

Function: sebum helps keep the hair soft, pliable and relatively waterproof
What is acne?
when the gland becomes plugged
What do nails consist of and what is it's function?
Consist: keratinized stratified squamous epithelial cells

Function: protects the end of fingers and toes
What are the 3 glands that make up the sweat glands and describe them? and what is sweat made of?
exocrine glands- produces sweat

eccrine glands- the most numerous sweat glands located on the forehead, neck and back

apocrine glands- located in the armpits and groin, and usually connected to hair fallicles

sweat is made of water, salt and wastes
What happens when your body temperature rises or drops?
Rises: dermal blood vessels dilate, and sweat glands secrete sweat

Drops: dermal blood vessels constrict, and sweat glands become inactive

excessive heat loss stimulates skeletal muscles to contract involuntarily

fever results from an elevated temperature set point
How do wounds heal?
dividing epithelial cells fill in shallow cuts in the epidermis

clots close deeper cuts, sometimes leaving a scar where connective tissue replaces skin

granulations form as part of the healing process
What is skin color due to?
the amount of melanin and the size of the pigment granules in the epidermis
What is skin color influenced by?
environmental and physiological factors, as well as by genes