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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Cranial Capacity
A measurement of the interior volume of the brain case used as an approximate estimate of brain size.
Pliocene Epoch
The fifth epoch of the cenozoic era, dating from 5 million to 1.7 million years ago.
Pleistocene Epoch
The sixth epoch of the Cenozoic era, dating from 1.7 million years to 0.01 million years ago.
Sahelanthropus Tchadensis
An early possible hominid species from Africa dating between 6 and 7 million years ago that has a number of hominid dental traits and may have been bipedal.
Orrorin Tugenensis
An early primitive hominid species from Africa dating to the late Miocene(6 Ma).
Ardipithecus Ramidus
An early primitive hominid species from Africa dating between 5.8 million and 4.4 million years ago.
Foramen Magnum
The large opening at the base of the skull where the spinal cord enters, which is located more under the skull in bipeds as compared to four-legged vertebrates.
Australopithecus Anamensis
A hominid species that lived in East Africa between 4.2 million and 3.9 million years ago. It was a biped but had many primitive apelike features of the skull and teeth.
Australopithecus
A genus of fossil hominid that lived between 4.2 million and 1 million years ago and is characterized by bipedal locomotion, small brain size, large face, and large teeth.
Australopithecus Afarensis
A primitive hominid found in East Africa dating between 4 million and 3 million years ago. The teeth and postcranial skeleton show a number of primitive and apelike features.
Kenyanthropus Platyops
A species of early hominid in East Africa dating to 3.5 million years ago. This species combines a number of primitive features (small brain, jutting face) and derived features (small molars, flat face). Its evolutionary status is unclear.
Robust Australopithecines
Species of Australopithecus that had very large back teeth, cheekbones, and faces, among other anatomical adaptations to heavy chewing. They lived in Africa between 2.5 million and 1.2 mil-lion years ago. Three species are generally recognized: A. aethiopicus, A. robustus, and A. boisei. Some anthropologists suggest that they be given their own genus name—Paranthropus.
Zygomatic Arch
The cheekbone, formed by the connection of the zygomatic and temporal bones on the side of the skull.
Sagittal Crest
A ridge of bone running down the center of the top of the skull that serves to anchor chewing muscles.
Cranial Capacity
A measurement of the interior volume of the brain case used as an approximate estimate of brain size.
Pliocene Epoch
The fifth epoch of the cenozoic era, dating from 5 million to 1.7 million years ago.
Pleistocene Epoch
The sixth epoch of the Cenozoic era, dating from 1.7 million years to 0.01 million years ago.
Sahelanthropus Tchadensis
An early possible hominid species from Africa dating between 6 and 7 million years ago that has a number of hominid dental traits and may have been bipedal.
Orrorin Tugenensis
An early primitive hominid species from Africa dating to the late Miocene(6 Ma).
Ardipithecus Ramidus
An early primitive hominid species from Africa dating between 5.8 million and 4.4 million years ago.
Foramen Magnum
The large opening at the base of the skull where the spinal cord enters, which is located more under the skull in bipeds as compared to four-legged vertebrates.
Australopithecus Anamensis
A hominid species that lived in East Africa between 4.2 million and 3.9 million years ago. It was a biped but had many primitive apelike features of the skull and teeth.
Australopithecus
A genus of fossil hominid that lived between 4.2 million and 1 million years ago and is characterized by bipedal locomotion, small brain size, large face, and large teeth.
Australopithecus Afarensis
A primitive hominid found in East Africa dating between 4 million and 3 million years ago. The teeth and postcranial skeleton show a number of primitive and apelike features.
Kenyanthropus Platyops
A species of early hominid in East Africa dating to 3.5 million years ago. This species combines a number of primitive features (small brain, jutting face) and derived features (small molars, flat face). Its evolutionary status is unclear.
Robust Australopithecines
Species of Australopithecus that had very large back teeth, cheekbones, and faces, among other anatomical adaptations to heavy chewing. They lived in Africa between 2.5 million and 1.2 mil-lion years ago. Three species are generally recognized: A. aethiopicus, A. robustus, and A. boisei. Some anthropologists suggest that they be given their own genus name—Paranthropus.
Zygomatic Arch
The cheekbone, formed by the connection of the zygomatic and temporal bones on the side of the skull.
Sagittal Crest
A ridge of bone running down the center of the top of the skull that serves to anchor chewing muscles.
Australopithecus Aethiopicus
The oldest robust australopithecine, dating to 2.5 million years ago in East Africa. It combines derived features seen in other robust australopithecines with primitive features seen in A. afarensis.
Australopithecus Robustus
A species of robust australopithecine dating between roughly 2 million and 1.5 million years ago and found in South Africa.
Australopithecus Boisei
A very robust species of robust australopithecine dating between 2 million and 1.2 million years ago and found in East Africa.
Australopithecus Afarensis
A primitive hominid found in East Africa dating between 4 million and 3 million years ago. The teeth and postcranial skeleton show a number of primitive and apelike features.
Australopithecus Garhi
A species of australopithecine dating to 2.5 million years ago in East Africa. It differs from other australopithecines in having large front and back teeth, although the back teeth are not specialized to the same extent as found in the robust australopithecines.