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17 Cards in this Set

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Stress
Any factor that interferes with the normal limits of operation of an organism.
Homeostasis
In a physiologic sense, the maintenance of normal limits of the body functioning conflicted by stress.
Acclimation
Short-term physiologic responses to a stress, usually within minutes or hours.

Ex. Such as sweating when you are hot
Acclimatization
Long-term physiologic responses to a stress, usually taking from days to months.

Ex. Such as an increase in red blood cell production after moving to a high-altitude environment.
Developmental Acclimatization
Changes in organ or body structure that occur during the physical growth of any organism.

Ex. Such as the increase in chest size that occurs when a person grows up in high altitudes.
Plasticity
The ability of an organism to respond physiologically or developmentally to environmental stresses.
Vasoconstriction
(H)
A physiologic response to cold stress that minimizes heat loss by the narrowing of blood vessels, which DECREASES blood flow and heat loss.
(H)
Alternates with Vasodilation in a pattern called the Lewis Hunting Phenomenon.
Vasodilation
(H)
A physiologic response to cold stress that minimizes heat loss by the opening of blood vessels, which INCREASES blood flow and heat loss.
(H)
Alternates with Vasoconstriction in a pattern called the Lewis Hunting Phenomenon.
Bergmann's Rule
(H)
Rule that states that among mammals of similar shape, the larger mammal loses heat less rapidly than the smaller mammal.

And that, among mammals of similar size, the mammal with a linear shape will lose heat more rapidly than the mammal with a nonlinear shape.
(H)
Cubes
Allen's Rule
(H)
Rule that states that mammals in cold climates tend to have short, bulky limbs, allowing less loss of body heat, whereas mammals in hot climates tend to have long, slender limbs, allowing greater loss of body heat.
(H)
Masai cattle herder from Africa VS. Inuit (Eskimo) man.
Cephalic Index
A measure of cranial shape defined as the total length of the skull divided by the maximum width of the skull.
Nasal Index
A measure of the shape of the nasal opening, defined as the width of the nasal opening divided by the height.
Hypoxia
Oxygen starvation, which occurs frequently at high altitudes.
Malnutrition
Poor nutrition, either from too much or too little food or the improper balance of nutrients.
Protein-calorie Malnutrition
A group of nutritional diseases resulting from inadequate amounts of proteins and/or calories.
Kwashiokor
(H)
An extreme form of protein-calorie malnutrition resulting from a severe deficiency in proteins but not calories.
(H)
Skinny kid with a swollen stomach.
Marasmus
(H)
An extreme form of protein-calorie malnutrition resulting from severe deficiencies in both proteins and calories.
(H)
Skin and bones kid