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75 Cards in this Set

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When was the Defence of the Realm Act (DORA) passed?
August 1914
What kind of powers did DORA give the government? And list as many examples as you can
DORA gave the government extensive powers to control information and impose fines for a range of new offenses:
-The government could imprison people without trial
-The government could requisition land or buildings
-The government introduced British Summer Time (BST) to give workers more daylight hours
-The sale of alcohol was strictly controlled.
-Pub opening times were restricted to 12-3pm and 6.30-9.30pm
-Beer was watered down and customers were not allowed to buy a round of drinks
-Lights had to be put out or kept to a minimum
-Permits were needed to keep homing pigeons
-It became illegal to talk about military matters in public, light a bonfire, fly a kite, feed bread to wild animals or buy binoculars
DORA also gave government power to censor and control news, only news issued by who could be published?
GHQ (army headquarters) or government departments
What could happen to a newspaper if it published unauthorised material?
The newspaper could be taken to court
What happened to letters written by soldiers?
They were censored by officials in the armed forces
Why did the government censor information?
To ensure the public did not find out about the worst features on the Western Front, especially the heavy casualties and poor living conditions
What was the newspaper created by the troops called and why?
Daily Liar, named after the Daily Mail, it was so subjective.
Which newspaper closed down for 2 weeks and why?
The Globe, after printing an article about a senior politician
The sinking of which ship was not reported until when? and when did it sink?
HMS Audacious, the end of the war. Sunk on 24th October 1914
What did the government set up to contol propaganda and when?
War Propaganda Bureau in September 1914
List 4 authours the War Propaganda recruited
Thomas Hardy, H.G Wells, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and Rudyard Kipling
In the first 5 years of operation how many things did the Bureau publish?
over 2.5 million
In the early months of the war what did the government use propaganda for?
to ensure support for the war and to encourage men to join the war effort
From 1915, films were made to encourage support for the war effort and in 1916 what film was made and how many people watched it?
The Battle of the Somme, 20 million people watched it.
What happened after the Battle of the Somme was shown in cinemas?
Instead of encouraging support, it actually produced anti-war feelings as it showed pictures of British wounded.
In what year was the Ministry of Information set up to produce films?
1918
Who was the Minister of War?
Lord Herbert Kitchener
Intially, how many volunteers were asked for by Lord Kitchener? And of what age?
100,000 volunteers, aged 19-30
By the end of August 1914 how many men had volunteered?
300,000
In what areas was recruitment most successful?
Areas of high unemployment
For what reasons did men join up?
Out of duty and patriotism, to get away from the boredom of their daily life or they believed that the war would be over by Christmas
After the intial months of the war volunteers slackened off, by December 1914 the number of volunteers had fallen to ....?
117,000
When did volunteer numbers hit 88,000?
Feb 1915
What was the 'Pals battalion'?
A battalion where new recruits were placed in units with friends, fmaily and neighbours to make them feel at home
Why did the government stop recruiting for 'Pal's battalion'?
There were heavy losses on the first day of the Battle of the Somme e.g. Leeds Pals lost 750 out of 900
When was the National Registration Act passed?
July 1915
What did the National Registration Act do?
Meant that all single men,and later married men, aged 16-65 had to give their names
In October 1915 what did the government introduce to encourage men to enlist voluntarily or 'attest' to a duty to enlist if they were asked?
Derby Scheme
What is conscription?
Compulsory military service
When was conscription introduces in Britian and by which Act?
January 1916, by the Military Service Act of January 1916
What did the Military Service Act of 1916 make ... do?
Made unmarried men between ages of 18-41 liable for service in the armed forces
When was the Military Service Act of January 1916 extended to inculde married men?
May 1916
On what 4 grounds could Conscripts claim exempton for?
1) Ill Health
2) reserved occupation (in an industry of national importance)
3) Family responsibilty
4) Conscientious objection
What is conscription?
Compulsory military service
What did someone who claimed exemption have to do?
Go before a Military Tribunal and prove that they deserved to be exempt from service
When was conscription introduces in Britian and by which Act?
January 1916, by the Military Service Act of January 1916
What did the Military Service Act of 1916 make ... do?
Made unmarried men between ages of 18-41 liable for service in the armed forces
When was the Military Service Act of January 1916 extended to inculde married men?
May 1916
On what 4 grounds could Conscripts claim exempton for?
1) Ill Health
2) reserved occupation (in an industry of national importance)
3) Family responsibilty
4) Conscientious objection
What did someone who claimed exemption have to do?
Go before a Military Tribunal and prove that they deserved to be exempt from service
What did Conscientious Objectors do?
Objected to conscription and refused to fight
Give three reasons as to why most conscientious objectors refused to fight?
1) some, like Quakers, refused to fight on religious grounds
2) some rejected it on political grounds
3) some said they were pacifists
Name 2 groups conchies formed
1) The Stop the War Committee
2) No Conscription Fellowship
What were 'alternativists' prepared to do?
carry out civilian work provided it was not under military law
What were 'Non-Combatants' prepared to do?
prepared to work in the armed forces provided they were not expected to fight. served in hospitals, drove ambulances and even dug trenches
how many 'absolutists' were imprisoned?
1500
What happened to some 'absolutists'?
71 died in jail, 31 went mad
Why was Britain vulernable to shortages?
brought most of its food from abroad
What did the Germans rely on to attack merchant ships in the North Atlantic taking food to Britain?
U-Boats
In April 1917 how many tons of merchant ships did the German U-boats sink?
866,000
The sinking of the merchant ships left Britain with how many weeks of wheat?
6
what foods did the government ration?
sugar, butter, meat, jam and tea
The threat of German U-boats was eventually overcome by the introduction of what?
Convoys and Depth chargers
Why was Britain vulernable to shortages?
brought most of its food from abroad
What were convoys?
Merchant ships protected by naval destroyers
What did the Germans rely on to attack merchant ships in the North Atlantic taking food to Britain?
U-Boats
What were depth chargers?
Explosives dropped by destroyers designed to detonate at certain depths and sink submarines
In April 1917 how many tons of merchant ships did the German U-boats sink?
866,000
The sinking of the merchant ships left Britain with how many weeks of wheat?
6
what foods did the government ration?
sugar, butter, meat, jam and tea
The threat of German U-boats was eventually overcome by the introduction of what?
Convoys and Depth chargers
What were convoys?
Merchant ships protected by naval destroyers
What were depth chargers?
Explosives dropped by destroyers designed to detonate at certain depths and sink submarines
What were new munitions factories opened for?
Planes, weapons and ammunition
Many women gave up their jobs as domestic servants for the freedom that wages in munitions factories gave them. How many women worked in munitions factories?
247,000 for the high wages of £3.00 a week
Why were women who worked in munitions factories named canaries?
Chemicals in these factories caused their hair to fall out, and skin to turn yellow. Chemicals led to breathing difficulties, blood poisoning and even brain damage.
In 1917 a fire where caused an explosion that killed 69 people and injured 400?
Silvertown Munitions Work in East London
in 1915 there were strikes against women workers, what did the government have to do?
Sign agreements with unions that women would not keep their jobs at the end of the war
What was one complaint of male workers?
Dilution, they were afraid that employement of unskilled women doing the same work as skilled men would lead to lower wages
How many women worked in engineering?
800,000
How many women joined the 'Lands Army?
18,000 (full time) 30,000 (part time)
Name some womens organisations:
-Womens voluntary police service
-The first aid nursing yeomanry (FANY)
-Voluntairy Aid Detachments (VAD)
-Women's Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC)
-Women's Royal Navy Service(WRNS)
-Womens Royal Air Force (WRAF)
In 1919 how many women were working as primary school teachers?
They occupied more than half of all posts
In what year did banks use women to collect money from branchers in the city?
1916
When was the first woman diplomat appointed by the British government?
1917