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84 Cards in this Set

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THE HEART IS PART OF THE

THE CIRCULARATORY SYSTEM
.
THE HEART DIVIDES INTO 2 DIVISIONS

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM-
HEART,BLOOD VESSELS, BLOOD

LYMPHATIC SYSTEM-
LYMPH VESSELS, LYMPH NODES
TONSILS, THYMUS, GLAND, SPLEEN
.
THE HEART

LOCATED: THORACIC CAVITY BETWEEN THE LUNGS IN THE MEDIASTINUM WITH STERNUM IN FRONT AND THROACIC VERTEBRA BEHIND
.
THE HEART

SIZE SHAPE
SIZE OF YOUR FIST / CONE SHAPED

NARROW TIP OR POINT IS CALLED THE
APEX

BROAD PORTION IS CALLED THE
BASE
.
PERICARDIUM---THE OUTERMOST LAYER

2 LAYERS OF FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE THAT ARE SEROUS MEMBRANE

1. PARIETAL PERICARDIUM--PERICARDIAL SAC
2. VISCERAL PERICARDIUM--EPICARDIUM

THERE IS A SMALL AMOUNT OF SEROUS FLUID BETWEEN THE TWO TO REDUCE FRICTION WITH MOVEMENT.
.
MYOCARDIUM--THE MIDDLE LAYER

MADE OF CARDIAC MUSCLE

ENDOCARDIUM--INNERMOST LAYER

SMOOTH--LINING

VALVES ARE CONTINUOUS WITH THIS LINING
.
4 CHAMBERS OF THE HEART

2 UPPER CHAMBERS CALLED ATRIUM (ATRIA PLURAL)

RIGHT ATRIUM (ONE CHAMBER)
LEFT ATRIUM (ONE CHAMBER)

THEY RECEIVE
.
2 LOWER CHAMBERS ARE CALLED VENTRICLES

RIGHT VENTRICLE (ONE CHAMBER)
LEFT VENTRICLE (ONE CHAMBER)

THEY PUMP BLOOD
.
SEPTUM-

DIVIDING WALL OF HEART BETWEEN RIGHT AND LEFT SIDES OF HEART
.
BETWEEN THE RIGHT ATRIUM & LEFT ATRIUM
CALLED

INTERATRIAL SEPTUM
.
BETWEEN THE RIGHT VENTRICLE & LEFT VENTRICLE CALLED THE

INTERVENTRICULAR SEPTUM
.
BLOOD VESSELS THAT ATTACH TO THE HEART

REMEMBER-- ARTERIES CARRY BLOOD AWAY FROM THE HEART

VEINS CARRY BLOOD TO THE HEART
.
SUPERIOR & INFERIOR VENA CAVAE
CARRY TO
RIGHT ATRIUM FROM THE BODY
.
PULMONARY ARTERY CARRIES BLOOD
FROM
RIGHT VENTRICLE
TO THE LUNGS
.
PULMONARY VEINS CARRIES BLOOD
TO THE LEFT ATRIUM
FROM THE
LUNGS
.
AORTA CARRIES BLOOD
FROM THE LEFT VENTRICLE
TO THE
BODY
.
VALVES TO THE HEART

PURPOSE OF VALVES--TO KEEP BLOOD FLOW IN A ONE-WAY DIRECTION
.
ATRIOVENTRICULAR VALVES (AV VALVES)

BETWEEN THE ATRIA & VENTRICLES
.
TRICUSPID VALVE BETWEEN

THE RIGHT ATRIUM & RIGHT VENTRICLE
.
MITRAL VALVE BETWEEN

LEFT ATRIUM & LEFT VENTRICLE
.
SEMI-LUNAR VALVES (SL VALVES)

BETWEEN VENTRICLES AND LARGE ARTERIES
.
PULMONARY SL VALVE-

BETWEEN RIGHT VENTRICLE & PULMONARY ARTERY
.
AORTIC SL VALVE--

BETWEEN LEFT VENTRICLE & AORTA
.
CHORDAE TENDINEAE--

FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE STRINGS THAT ATTACH (AV VALVES) ATRIOVENTRICULAR VALVES ON THE VENTRICLE SIDE AND TO THE VENTRICLE WALLS.

PURPOSE: TO PREVENT THEM FROM INVERTING
.
BLOOD FLOW THROUGH THE HEART >
FROM THE BODY >
SUPERIOR & INFERIOR VENA CAVAE >
RIGHT ATRIUM >
TRICUSPID VALVE >
RIGHT VENTRICLE >
PULMONARY SEMI-LUNAR VALVE >
PULMONARY ARTERY >
TO THE LUNGS >
.
BLOOD FLOW FROM THE LUNGS >
PULMONARY VEIN >
LEFT ATRIUM >
MITRAL VALVE >
LEFT VENTRICLE >
AORTIC SEMI-LUNAR VALVE >
AORTA >
TO THE BODY >
.
THE CARDIAC CYCLE

DEFINITION: THE SEQUENCE OF EVENTS THAT OCCUR IN ONE COMPLETE HEART BEAT

TAKES ABOUT 0.8 SECONDS
.
SYSTOLE--
CONTRACTION OF THE HEART

DIASTOLE--RELAXATION OF THE HEART

BOTH ATRIA CONTRACT AND RELAX TOGETHER

BOTH VENTRICLES CONTRACT AND RELAX TOGETHER
.
DIASTOLE--BLOOD FLOWS INTO THE ATRIA FROM SUPERIOR & INFERIOR VENA CAVAE & PULMONARY VEIN

AV VALVES ARE OPEN; SL VALVES ARE CLOSED SO BLOOD FLOWS ON INTO THE VENTRICLES

ATRIA & VENTRICLES ARE RELAXED
.
SYSTOLE--ATRIA CONTRACT AND FORCE REMAINING BLOOD INTO VENTRICLES

VENTRICLES BEGIN TO CONTRACT; PRESSURE INSIDE THE VENTRICLES INCREASES CAUSING THE AV VALVES TO CLOSE (LUB)

VENTRICLES CONTINUE TO CONTRACT; PRESSURE CONTINUES TO INCREASE CAUSING THE SL VALVES TO OPEN

BLOOD RUSHES OUT OF THE VENTRICLES INTO PULMONARY ARTERY AND AORTA (MEANWHILE, THE ATRIA HAVE BEEN FILLING UP WITH BLOOD)
.
DIASTOLE--THE VENTRICLES RELAX

BACKFLOW OF BLOOD IN PULMONARY ARTERY AND AORTA CAUSES THE SL VALVES TO CLOSE (DUP)

PRESSURE IN VENTRICLES IS DECREASED CAUSING THE AV VALVES TO OPEN AND VENTRICLES FILL WITH BLOOD.
.
WHAT CLOSES THE AV VALVES ??

INCREASED PRESSURE IN VENTRICLES WHEN CONTRACTING
.
WHAT OPENS THE AV VALVES ??

DECREASED PRESSURE IN VENTRICLES WHEN RELAXING
.
WHAT CLOSES THE SL VALVES ??

BACKFLOW OF BLOOD IN ARTERIES WHEN VENTRICLES RELAX
.
WHAT OPENS THE SL VALVES ??

INCREASED PRESSURE IN THE VENTRICLES WHEN CONTRACTING
.
THE CONDUCTION SYSTEM OF THE HEART

BLOOD VESSELS
.
SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CARDIAC MUSCLE TISSUE

1. THE MUSCULAR FIBERS ARE INTERWOVEN SO THAT WHEN ONE IS STIMULATED TO CONTRACT, THE WHOLE GROUP CONTRACTS

2. THE MORE THE MUSCLE FIBERS ARE STRETCHED THE MORE FORCEFULLY THEY CONTRACT

3. HAS ABILITY TO GENERATE AN IMPULSE (DEPOLARIZE)
.
THE CONDUCTION SYSTEM

DEFINITION: THE SPECIAL AREAS IN THE MYOCARDIUM THAT HAS THE ABILITY TO GENERATE AN ELECTRICAL IMPULSE
.
THE MYOCARDIUM DOES NOT

HAVE TO BE STIMULATED BY A NERVE IMPULSE, IT CAN GENERATE ON ITS OWN
.
THE PARTS OF THE CONDUCTION SYSTEM

1. SINOATRIAL NODE (SA NODE) IN (RA)RIGHT ATRIUM
2. ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE (AV NODE) IN SEPTUM WHERE ATRIA AND VENTRICLES MEET
3. BUNDLE OF HIS--IN THE INTERVENTRICULAR SEPTUM
4. RIGHT AND LEFT BUNDLE BRANCHES--IN WALLS OF VENTRICLES
5. PURKINJE FIBERS--SMALLER BRANCHES IN THE VENTRICLE WALLS
.
THE STEPS OF AN IMPULSE THROUGH THE HEART
1. THE SA NODE INIATES AN IMPULSE AND IT SPREADS ACROSS BOTH ATRIA CAUSING THEM TO CONTRACT.

2. THE IMPULSES REACHES THE AV NODE.

3. IT THEN TRAVELS THROUGH THE INTRAVENTRICULAR SEPTUM TO THE BUNDLE OF HIS-THROUGH THE RIGHT AND LEFT BUNDLE BRANCHES THROUGH THE PURKINJE FIBERS CAUSING THE VENTRICLES TO CONTRACT
.
ANY OF THE AREA CAN GENERATE THE IMPULSE.

BUT IT'S THE SA NODE THAT IS THE STRONGEST

THE SA NODE OVERRIDES THE OTHERS

THE SA NODE CAUSES A NORMAL RHYTHM IN THE HEARTBEAT--NSR--NORMAL SINUS RHYTHM
.
PACEMAKER WOULD TAKE PLACE OF SA NODE (NATURAL PACEMAKER OF THE HEART)

THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM SPEEDS AND SLOWS THE RATE TO KEEP UP WITH THE NEEDS OF THE BODY
.
3 KINDS OF BLOOD VESSELS

1. ARTERIES--CARRY BLOOD AWAY FROM THE HEART

2. VEINS--CARRY BLOOD TO THE HEART

3. CAPILLARIES--CARRY BLOOD FROM ARTERIES TO THE VEINS

ARTERIES > CAPILLARIES > VEINS >
.
BLOOD VESSELS

FROM HEART > LARGEST ARTERY IS AORTA

ARTERIES BRANCH SMALLER AND SMALLER (ARTERIOLES)

CAPILLARIES >

SMALL VEINS (VENULES) > TO LARGER AND LARGER TO LAREST VEINS (SUPERIOR & INFERIOR VENA CAVAE)

ALWAYS A ONE WAY DIRECTION
ARTERIES > CAPILLARIES > VEINS
.
3 LAYERS OF MOST BLOOD VESSELS

1. LINING--SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM (1 CELL LAYER THICK) CONTINUOUS WITH THE ENDOCARDIUM SOMETIMES CALLED THE ENDOTHELIUM

2. SMOOTH MUSCLE LAYER IN THE MIDDLE--CONTRACTS & RELAXES WHICH CONSTRICTS AND DILATES THE VESSELS

3. OUTER LAYER--FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE
.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ARTERIES, CAPILLARIES, & VEINS

WHERE DO THEY CARRY BLOOD

ARTERIES-FROM HEART
CAPILLARIES-FROM ARTERIES TO VEINS
VEINS-CARRY TO HEART
.
CAPILLARY WALLS ARE SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM (ONE CELL LAYER THICK)

ARTERIES HAVE THICKER WALLS DUE TO A THICKER SMOOTH MUSCLE LAYER

VEINS-SMOOTH MUSCLE THIN IN VEINS
.
SO
ARTERIES
CAN DILATE & CONSTRICT MORE
PLAYING A ROLE IN MAINTAINING BP

VEINS COLLAPSE MORE EASILY
.
MORE DIFFERENCES...

MOST (NOT ALL) ARTERIES CARRY OXYGENATED BLOOD

MOST (NOT ALL) VEINS CARRY DEOXYGENATED BLOOD

OXYGEN-CARBON DIOXIDE EXCHANGE AND NUTRIENT-WASTE EXCHANGE OCCURS BETWEEN THE CAPILLARIES AND THE BODY CELLS
.
ARTERIES ARE LOCATED IN DEEP, WELL-PROTECTED AREAS

VEINS ARE MORE SUPERFICIAL

CAPILLARIES ARE MICROSCOPIC-BLOOD FLOWS THROUGH SLOWLY SO EXCHANGES CAN OCCUR
.
ONE MORE DIFFERENCE

VEINS HAVE VALVES (MAINLY IN LARGE VEINS IN LOWER EXTREMITIES) TO KEEP BLOOD FLOWING TOWARD HEART

ARTERIES & CAPILLARIES (DO NOT) HAVE VALVES !!
.
SUPERFICIAL VEINS OF THE FOOT & LOWER LEG
1. LATERAL MARGINAL VEIN
2. DORSAL VENOUS NETWORK
3. LATERAL MARGINAL VEINS
4. GREAT SAPHENOUS VEIN
5. DORSAL VENOUS ARCH
6. MEDIAN MARGINAL VEINS
.
CENTRAL VEINS OF THE UPPER TORSO
1. AXILLARY VEIN
2. SUPERIOR VENA CAVAE
3. INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN
4. EXTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN
5. INNOMINATE VEIN
6. SUBCLAVIAN VEIN
7. AXILLARY VEIN
8. INFERIOR VENA CAVA
.
SUPERFICIAL VEINS OF THE FOREARM
1. CEPHALIC VEIN
2. ACCESSORY CEPHALIC VEIN
3. CEPHALIC VEIN
4. MEDIAN ANTEBRACHIAL VEIN
5. BASILIC VEIN
6. MEDIAN CUBITAL VEIN
7. BASILIC VEIN
.
SUPERFICIAL VEINS OF DORSAL ASPECT OF THE HAND
1. BASILIC
2. METACARPAL
3. DIGITAL
4. METACARPAL
5. DORSAL VENOUS ARCH
6. CEPHALIC
.
MAJOR VEINS

LARGEST VEINS ARE ??

SUPERIOR VENA CAVA & INFERIOR VENA CAVA
BOTH CARRY BLOOD TO THE HEART
.
VEINS THAT CARRY BLOOD AWAY FROM THE ARMS & HANDS ??

1. CEPHALIC VEIN
2. BASILIC VEIN
3. AXILLARY VEIN
4. SUBCLAVIAN VEIN
.
VEINS THAT CARRY BLOOD AWAY FROM THE HEAD AND NECK ??

1. EXTERNAL JUGULAR & INTERNAL JUGULAR VEINS
.
THE RIGHT & LEFT SUBCLAVIAN VEINS
THE RIGHT & LEFT EXTERNAL JUGULAR VEINS
THE RIGHT & LEFT INTERNAL JUGULAR VEINS
DRAIN BLOOD INTO THE

RIGHT & LEFT BRACHIOCEPHALIC VEINS WHICH IN TURN
DRAIN THE BLOOD INTO THE
SUPERIOR VENA CAVA
.
VEINS THAT CARRY BLOOD AWAY FROM THE LEGS & FEET
1. ANTERIOR TIBIAL VEIN
2. POSTERIOR TIBIAL VEIN
3. POPLITEAL VEIN
4. FEMORAL VEIN
5. GREAT SAPHENOUS VEIN
6. COMMON ILIAC VEIN
.
THE LONGEST VEIN IS ???

GREAT SAPHENOUS VEIN
.
VEINS THAT CARRY BLOOD AWAY FROM THE ABDOMINAL AND PELVIC ORGANS
1. SPLENIC VEIN
2. INFERIOR MESENTERIC VEIN
3. SUPERIOR MESENTERIC VEIN
4. INTERNAL ILIAC VEIN
5. GASTRIC VEIN
6. RENAL VEINS
7. HEPATIC VEIN
.
CARRY BLOOD AWAY FROM THE ABDOMINAL & PELVIC ORGANS

SPLENIC VEIN--FROM THE SPLEEN

INFERIOR MESENTERIC VEIN--FROM THE 2ND HALF OF THE LARGE INTESTINES
.
CARRY BLOOD AWAY FROM THE ABDOMINAL & PELVIC ORGANS

SUPERIOR MESENTERIC VEIN--FROM THE SMALL INTESTINES AND 1ST HALF OF THE LARGE INTESTINES

INTERNAL ILIAC VEIN--FROM THE PELVIC ORGANS
.
CARRY BLOOD AWAY FROM THE ABDOMINAL & PELVIC ORGANS

GASTRIC VEIN--FROM THE STOMACH

RENAL VEINS--FROM THE KIDNEYS

HEPATIC VEIN--FROM THE LIVER
.
RENAL VEINS & HEPATIC VEIN

CARRY BLOOD TO THE

INFERIOR VENA CAVA
.
THE INTERNAL ILIAC VEINS CARRY BLOOD

TO THE COMMON ILIAC VEINS WHICH DRAIN

INTO THE INFERIOR VENA CAVA
.
THE GASTRIC VEIN
SPLENIC VEIN
SUPERIOR & INFERIOR MESENTERIC VEINS
CARRY BLOOD
TO THE
PORTAL VEIN
.
GASTRIC VEIN, SPLENIC VEIN, SUPERIOR & INFERIOR MESENTERIC VEINS >> PORTAL VEIN OR (HEPATIC PORTAL VEIN) >> LIVER >>HEPATIC VEIN >> INFERIOR VENA CAVA

PROCESS NUTRIENTS & DETOXIFY BEFORE IT GOES BACK IN BODY
.
MAJOR ARTERIES

LARGEST ARTERY

AORTA--CARRIES BLOOD AWAY FROM THE HEART
.
4 REGIONS OF THE AORTA

1. ASCENDING AORTA
2. AORTIC ARCH
3. THORACIC AORTA
4. ABDOMINAL AORTA
.
1. ASCENDING AORTA (REGION 1)

HAS 2 BRANCHES
A. RIGHT CORONARY ARTERY
B. LEFT CORONARY ARTERY

TOGETHER WITH THEIR BRANCHES THEY SUPPLY MYOCARDIUM
.
2. AORTIC ARCH (REGION 2)

HAS 3 BRANCHES
A. BRACHIOCEPHALIC ARTERY (MAKES THE ARCH) DIVIDES INTO
RIGHT SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY
RIGHT COMMON CAROTID ARTERY

B. LEFT COMMON CAROTID ARTERY (MIDDLE)
C. LEFT SUBCLAVIN ARTERY
.
THE COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES AND THEIR BRANCHES

SUPPLY

THE HEAD AND NECK AND BRAIN
.
THE SUBCLAVIAN ARTERIES AND THEIR BRANCHES

SUPPLY

THE ARMS, HANDS, FINGERS (AXILLARY, BRACHIAL, ULNAR, RADIAL ARTERIES)
.
ABDOMINAL AORTA--2ND TO 5 BRANCH

SUPERIOR MESENTERIC ARTERY--SUPPLIES THE SMALL INTESTINES AND THE FIRST HALF OF THE LARGE INTESTINES

INFERIOR MESENTERIC ARTERY--SUPPLIES THE SECOND HALF OF THE LARGE INTESTINES

RIGHT & LEFT RENAL ARTERIES--SUPPLY THE KIDNEYS R TO RKIDNEY L TO LKIDNEY
.
THEN THE ABDOMINAL AORTA DIVIDES INTO

RIGHT & LEFT COMMON ILIAC ARTERIES WHICH HAVE 2 BRANCHES

1. INTERNAL ILIAC ARTERIES-SUPPLY THE PELVIC ORGANS
2. EXTERNAL ILIAC ARTERIES-SUPPLY THE LEGS AND FEET (FEMORAL, POPLITEAL, ANTERIOR TIBIAL, POSTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERIES)
.
3. (REGION 3)THORACIC AORTA--HAS SEVERAL BRANCHES

THEY SUPPLY THE ESOPHAGUS, LUNGS, CHEST WALL, ETC

GOES TO CHEST
.
4. (REGION 4)ABDOMINAL AORTA--HAS 5 BRANCHES

1.CELIAC ARTERY 3 BRANCHES
GASTRIC ARTERY--SUPPLIES STOMACH
SPLENIC ARTERY--SUPPLIES THE SPLEEN
HEPATIC ARTERY--SUPPLIES THE LIVER
.
CARDIO-, -CARDIA == HEART

PHLEBO- =========== VEIN

ARTERIO- ========== ARTERY

BI- =============== TWO
.
CORONO- ========= HEART

BRADY- ========== SLOW

-SCLEROSIS ====== HARDENING
.
-PLASTY ======== SURGICAL REPAIR

VASO- ========== VESSEL, DUCT

VENO- ========== VEIN

ANGIO- ========= VESSEL
.
TRI- ======= TRIPLE OR THREE

LYMPHO- ==== LYMPH

TACHY- ==== FAST

-STENOSIS == CONSTRICTION, NARROWING

-TOMY, -OTOMY == CUT INTO, INCISION
.