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88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
any species (molecule or ion) that can donate a proton to another species
activated complex
an unstable intermediate product of a chemical reaction
activation energy
the energy required to form the activated complex and initiate a chemical reaction
addition polymerization
the result of joining monomers of unsaturated compounds, usually hydrocarbons, by "opening" double or triple bonds in the carbon chain
addition reaction
a reaction that occurs when one or more atoms are added to an unsaturated hydrocarbon molecule at a double or triple bond
a hydrocarbon that has two double bonds and the general formula C(n)H(2n-n)

* two double bonds
* C(n)H(2n-n)
alkali metals`
the elements of Group 1 of the periodic table
alkaline earth metals
the elements of Group 2 of the periodic table
alkane (methane) series
a group of saturated hydrocarbons with the general formula C(n)H(2n+2)

* saturated
* C(n)H(2n+2)
alkene (olefin) series
a group of unsaturated hydrocarbons with one carbon-carbon double bond and the general formula C(n)H(2n)

* unsaturated
* double bond
* C(n)H(2n)
an element that exhibits different forms due to the formation of molecules composed of different numbers of atoms
a substance composed of two or more metals mixed or dissolved together
alpha decay
the emission of alpha particles, the nuclei of helium atoms, from the nuclei of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes
alpha particle
a radioactive emanation that has the same composition as the nucleus of a helium atom: two protons and two neutrons
amino acid
an organic compound in which the amine group --NH2 has replaced a hydrogen atom usually on the carbon atom next to the carboxyl group
amphoteric (or amphiprotic)
a substance that can act either as an acid or a base
a negatively charged ion
in any electrochemical cell, the electrode at which oxidation occurs
artificial transmutation
a bombardment of the nucleus of an atom with high-energy particles such as protons, neutrons, and alpha particles in order to make that nucleus artificially radioactive
average kinetic energy
the temperature of a body
Avogadro's hypothesis
equal volumes of all gases, measured at the same temperature and pressure, contain the same number of particles
Avogadro's number
6.02 X 10^23
The number of atoms in one gram-atomic mass of any element or the number of molecules in 1 gram-formula mass of any compound
any species that can combine with (accept) a proton
benzene series
a group of hydrocarbons with the general formula C(n)H(2n-6)
beta decay
teh emission of beta particles, or high-speed electrons, from the nucleus of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes

* increases atomic number by 1
binary compound
a compound containing two elements and whose name usually ends in -ide
Boyle's law
at constant temperature, the volume of a given mass of gas varies inversely with the pressure exerted on it
breeder reactor
a type of neclear reactor that produces both energy and plutonium-239, a nuclear fuel. The reactor produces more fuel than it consumes.
carboxylic acid
an organic acid with the general formula R--COOH
a substance that increases the rate of reaction without being chemically altered itself
in any electrochemical cell, the electrode at which reduction occurs
a positively charged ion
Charles' law
at constant pressure, the volume of a given mass of gas varies directly with the Kelvin (absolute) temperature
chemical equilibrium
the state of a reversible reaction that occurrs when the reates of the opposing reactions are equal
a homogenous mizture containing particles large enough to reflect a beam of light
an exothermic change from gas to liquid
condensation polymerization
the result of the bonding of monomers by a dehydration reaction
control rods
rods made of boron or cadmium that can be moved in and out of a nuclear reactor to control the rate of a fission reaction
coordinate covalent bond
a bond in which both electrons of a shared pair in a covalent bond are donated by the same atom
covalent bond
a bond formed by the sharing of electrons
Dalton's law
the total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sm of the individual pressures of the gases comproising the mixture
daniell cell
Daniell cell
an electrochemical cell using copper and zinc half-cells
dihydroxy alcohols
Carbon compounds that contain two --OH groups per molecule
an assymetrical molecule whose centers of positive and negative charge are located at different parts of the molecule
the separation of an ionic or covalent compound into simpler species
ductile substance
a solid material or substance that can be drawn out to form a thin wire
a metal conductor in any electrochemical cell
the decomposition of an electrolyte by an electric current
a substance whose aqueous solution conducts electric current
a neasyre if tge abukutt of a nucleus to attract the electrons in a covalent bond
the process of coating a metal in an electrolytic cell
endothermic reaction
a reaction that has a positive heat of reaction in which energy is absorbed and the potential energy of the products is greater than the potential energy of the reactants
a measure of the potential energy of chemical bonds
a measure of the disorder, randomness, or lack of organization in a system
organic acid + alcohol = ester + water
excited state
the condition of an atom that exists from absorption of energy, characterized by the movement of one or more electrons to higher energy levels
exothermic reaction
a reaction that has a negative heat of reaction in which energy is released and the potential energy of the products is less than the potential energy of the reactants
a process in which enzymes act as catalysts to produce alcohol from carbohydrates
fission reactor
a type of nuclear reactor presently in use that produces energy from the fission of uranium
free energy change
the difference between energy change and entropy change according tothe formula G = H - T S
(goldfish are horrible without tartar sauce)
ground state
the normal state of an atom with all of its electrons in their lowest available energy levels
the time required for one-half of the nuclei of a given sample of a radioactive element to undergo decay
halogen substitution
a reaction in which one or more hydrogen atoms of a saturated hydrocarbon are replaced by a corresponding number of halogen atoms
heterogeneous substance
a sample of a substance that is not uniform throughout in its properties, composition, or phase
homologous series
a group of organic compounds with the same general formula and similar structures and properties
the addition of water to a compound or an ion
the addition of hydrogen to an unsaturated hydrocabon or hydrocarbon derivative
the reactino of a silt with water to form a slightly acidic or basic solution
term for two liquids that will not mix to form a solution
ionic bond
a bond between oppositely charged particles formed when electrons are transferred between atoms
ionization energy
the amounto f energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron from an atom in the gas phase
compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas
atoms with the same atomic number but different atomic masses
one thousand joules
Le Chatelier's principle
When a system at equilibrium is subjected to a stress, the system will shift so as to relieve the stress and move to a new equilibrium
Term for the ability of a metal to be hammered or rolled into thin sheets
an element that contains atoms that lose electrons to form positive ions in chemical reactions

+ losers
+ conductivity
+ luster
+ malleability
metallic bond
a bond formed by the sea of mobile valance electrons that surround the positive metal ions in a metallic crystal
a substance that can slow down neutrons, used in nuclear reactors to control fission reactions
network solid
covalently bonded atoms linked in a network that extends throughout a large sample
a substance whose aqueous solution does not conduct electric current
term for a bond or a molecule with uniform distribution of charge
nonpolar bond
a covalent bond in which the electron pair that forms the bond is shared equally by two atoms
term for a liquid with negligible vapor pressure
nuclear fission
a reaction in which heavy nuclei are split into light nuclei
nuclear fusion
the process of combining two light nuclei to form a heavier nucleus and releasing an even greater amount of energy than in a fission reaction
term used to describe a molecule in which one end has a slightly positive charge and the other end has a slightly negative charge because of asymmetrical arrangement of polar bonds
polar covalent bond
a covalent bond in which the electron pair is not shared equally by the two atoms; generally, a covalent bond in which the electron pair is shared by atoms of different elements