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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
sx of macular degeneration
loss of central vision
types of macular degeneration
exudative: less common, more severe --> sudden visual loss from leakage of fluid into retina --> abnormal bv formation
non-exudative: atrophy anda degeneration of central retina, drusen forms under the pigment
clinical findings of glaucoma
increaed iop
damage ot optic nerve
irreversible vision loss
loss of ganglion cells --> atrophy of optic disk
cup gets bigger
2 types of glaucoma
open angle: painless, silent dz course, impaired outflow of aqueous humor
closed angle: occlusion of a narrow angle, very painful with eye dilation. eye is red and painful, n/v/ha **pupil becomes non-reactive**
clinical findings of subconjunctival hemorrhage
red blotchy portions of the eye
non an emergency, looks worse than it is
tx of subconjunctival hemorrhage
resolves in a few weeks on its own, but cold compresses can help
clinical findings of blepharitis

etiology
inflamed eyelid, usually from staph infx
eyelid is red, swollen and crusted
foreign body sensation
tx of blepharitis
lid scrubs and compress, topical abx if severe
clinical findings of episcleritis
inflamed bv lining sclera
irritation, dull ache, watery d/c
sclera are blotchy
tx of episcleritis
self limited
nsaids can be used for symptom relief
clinical findings of scleritis
significant eye pain
ocular redness
visual impairment
pain on palpation of eyeball
tx of scleritis
topical or systemic steroids
clinical findings of superficial keratitis
inflammation of corneal epithelium
--> impaired vision and eye pain
slit lamp eval: under cobalt blue + fluorescein dye, shows micro-erosions of corneal epithelium
clinical findings of anterior uveitis
red around the cornea
blurred vision
pain
photophobia
constricted pupil
clinical findings of herpes simplex keratitis
dentrite seen on cornea (with fluoroscein staining)
blindness if not treated
ocular irritation and photophobia
which eye conditions are associated with systemic dz
anterior uveitis
episcleritis scleritis
which hsv is related to hsv keratitis
hsv 1
sx of hyperacute bacterial conjunctivitis
rapid onset of copious, purulent exudate
--> blindness very quickly
what organism is related to hyperacute bacterial conjunctivitis
n. gonorrhea
tx of hyperacute bacterial conjunctivitis
im ceftriaxone
who to suspect of having hyperacute bacterial conjunctivitis
sexually active young adult with rapid onset of copious purulent exudate
what is the #1 cause of blindness worlwide
trachoma
clinical features of trachoma
chronic conjunctival scarring
2 types of conjunctivitis caused by chlamydia
trachoma
inclusion conjunctivitis
clinical findings of inclusion conjunctivitis
there is no scarring or blindness risk
follicles are seen on inner margin of eye
tx of chlamydial conjunctivitis
oral tetracycline, doxy, or erythromycin

tx partners too!
#1 cause of white reflex in children
congenital cataracts
sx of retinal detachment
floaters
flashes of light
grey elevated retina
peripheral loss of vision (as opposed to macular degeneration or optic neuritis)
sx of choroidal rupture
central scotoma
retinal edema
macular detachment
subretinal hemorrhage
etiology of choroidal rupture
usually from blunt ocular trauma
sx of proliferative diabetic retinopathy
decreased visual acuity
neovascularization
clinical findings of cmv retinitis
yellow-white patches of retinal opacifications, and retinal hemorrhage

pts usually asx
tx of cmv retinitis
ganciclovir or foscarnet
vision defect in hypperosmolar hyperglycemic diabetic coma

pathophysiology
blurry vision
from hyperosmolarity
dacrocystitis
infection of lacrimal sac from obx at nasolacrimal duct
--> pain, swelling, tenderness, redness
expression of mucous or pus
sx in optic neuritis
central scotoma
afferent pupillary defect
changes in color perception
decreased visual acuity
clinical findings of htn retinopathy
av nickeing
copper/silver wiring
exudates
hemorrhage
no sx of visual impairment
pathophys of htn retinomapthy
focal spasm of arterioles, progressive sclerosis and narrowing
types of dm retinopathy
1. microaneurysms, hemorrhage, exudates, retinal edema --> vision changes
2. pre-proliferative changes (cotton wool spots)
3. Prolferative (newly formed bv)
how can complications of dm retinopathy be prevented
with laser photocoag