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83 Cards in this Set

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What are the general characteristics of hormones?
1. Produced by endocrine glands
2. Transported via circulatory system to their target tissues.
3. A single hormone can have multiple effects on one tissue
4. A single hormone may have more than one target tissue
What are two structure that are endocrine glands?
hypothalamus and ant/posterior pituitary
What hormone type is derived from cholesterol?
steroids
What type of hormones are steroids?
metabolic and sex
What are two examples of steroid hormones?
Testosterone/estrogen and glucocorticoids
Where are glucocorticoids secreted from?
adrenal cortex
Where are testosterone and estrogen secreted from?
gonads
Which hormone group are most hormones classified as?
peptides
What are examples of peptide hormones?
LH/FSH and GnRH
LH/FSH are secreted from where?
anterior pituitary
GnRH are secreted from where?
hypothalamus
Where are amines derived from?
tyrosine
What are examples of amines?
epi/norepi and T3/T4 & calcitonin
Where is T3/T4 and calcitonin?
thyroid
Where is epi/norepi secreted from?
adrenal medulla
What are the general characteristics of hormones?
1. Produced by endocrine glands
2. Transported via circulatory system to their target tissues.
3. A single hormone can have multiple effects on one tissue
4. A single hormone may have more than one target tissue
What are two structure that are endocrine glands?
hypothalamus and ant/posterior pituitary
What hormone type is derived from cholesterol?
steroids
What type of hormones are steroids?
metabolic and sex
What are two examples of steroid hormones?
Testosterone/estrogen and glucocorticoids
Where are glucocorticoids secreted from?
adrenal cortex
Where are testosterone and estrogen secreted from?
gonads
Which hormone group are most hormones classified as?
peptides
What are examples of peptide hormones?
LH/FSH and GnRH
LH/FSH are secreted from where?
anterior pituitary
GnRH are secreted from where?
hypothalamus
Where are amines derived from?
tyrosine
What are examples of amines?
epi/norepi and T3/T4 & calcitonin
Where is T3/T4 and calcitonin?
thyroid
Where is epi/norepi secreted from?
adrenal medulla
In lipid soluble hormones where does the receptor bind to?
nucleus membrane
What is activated in a lipid soluble hormone?
DNA
The activation of DNA results in protein production specific for what complex?
the particular hormone-receptor complex
If actin and myosin are protein products after the activation of DNA what is the hormone and receptor area?
hormone: testosterone
receptor on effector: skeletal muscle
What are lipid insoluble hormones?
peptides and amines
Where does the receptor bind to in lipid insoluble hormones?
the surface of the plasma membrane
What is activated in lipid insoluble hormones?
an intracellular 2nd messanger system
What is the result of the activation of an intracellular 2nd messanger system?
an enzyme activation that causes a cellular response
What is does FSH initiate?
spermatogenesis in testes
What is a 10 amino acid neurohormone?
GnRH
What is the target tissue of GnRH?
anterior pituitary
GnRH causes what to release?
FSH/LH
GnRH travels to the anterior pituitary via what system?
hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system
LH/FSH are what specific type of hormones?
gonadotropic hormones
Gonadotropic hormones are synthesized and stored in what type of cells?
gonadotropes
What is the target tissue for LH/FSH?
male and female gonads
What is the fxn of LH in males?
It causes intersitial cells of Leydig to produce and release testosterone
What is testosterone responsible for?
characteristics of the masculine body during development
What is the role of testosterone in the male fetus?
it causes the formation of a penis, scrotum, prostate gland, and seminal vesicles and it causes testes to descend into the scrotum during the last 2-3 mo. of gestation
What happens to Leydig cells before birth?
they regress and stop producing testosterone until puberty
What is the role of LH during male puberty?
it causes the development of primary and secondary sex characteristics
What is an example of primary sex characteristics in the male?
penis, scrotum, and testes enlargement
What is an example of secondary sex characteristics in males?
body hair development, enlargement of larynx and up to 50% increase in muscle mass
What are the cells that FSH binds to specific receptors in the testes?
sertoli cells
What is the fxn of sertoli cells?
it causes cells to grow and release substances important in spermatogenesis
What 2 important hormones are released from sertoli cells that are important in spermatogenesis?
activin and inhibin
What does activin enhance?
spermatogenesis
What hormone inhibits GnRH when sperm levels are high?
inhibin
In females, what are inactive until puberty?
oocyte and their surrounding follicles
What happens to the average female around age 9 or 10?
the anterior pituitary responds to GnRH release by increasing the secretion of FSH/LH
What is the first phase of the ovarian cycle?
Follicular Phase
What hormone causes the accelerated growth of 6-12 primary follicles and their oocytes during the follicular phase?
FSH
What type of cells make up the most immature stage in the ovarian cycle?
granulosa cells
What cells develop around primary follicles and surround granulosa cells?
thecal cells
What do thecal cells secrete?
testosterone
After testosterone is secreted from thecal cells, what is then converted?
estrogen
Granulosa cells convert testosterone into estrogen via what?
aromatase
After estrogen is converted from testosterone what is formed between granulosa cells?
and antrum
An antrum is formed in a few primary follicles under the influence of what hormone?
estrogen
Once an antrum is formed, what is the new name of the follicle?
the vesicular follicle
The vesicular follicles and their oocytes undergo a rapid period of growth under the influence of what hormones?
FSH and estrogen
One vesicular follicle will outgrow all the others and what will happen to the remiaing follicles?
they will undergo atresia
What is the most mature follicle that will be ovulated?
Graafian follicle
What happens ~2 days before ovulation?
A surge in LH secretion from the anterior pituitary will cause a rapid swelling of a Graafian follicle
What 2 events cause the Graafian follicle to rupture and expel the oocyte?
1. Thecal cells secrete proteolytic enzymes that degrade the follicle wall
2. Blood vessels supplying follicle to vasodilate increasing bloodflow causing the follicular wall to swell more and the antrum burst
What phase is described as the formation of the corpus luteum?
Luteal stage
What must prompt the remaining thecal cells to form the corpus luteum?
LH
The corpus luteum secretes what hormone?
progesterone
What is the fxn of progesterone?
to promote changes in the uterus for implantation of an ovum
What happens if fertilizaion takes place?
the corpus luteum remains and the progesterone feeds back to the hypothalamus and ant. pituitary to inhibit the release of GnRH, LH, FSH
What happens if fertilization does not take place?
The corpus luteum degenerates anf forms the corpus albicans and secretion of GnRH, LH, and FSH will resume
How does the body know if fertilization has taken place?
by the human chorionic hormone (HCG)
What is the structure that is a formation of scar tissue and will only occur if fertilization does not occur?
corpus albicans