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60 Cards in this Set

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Which system is known as the secondary control system of the body?
The Endocrine System
Which of the body's other systems contols the endocrine system?
The nervous system
What differentiates an endocrine gland from other glands in the body?
endocrine glands have no ducts;hormones are released directly into the bloodsteam for possible systemic effect
Example of whole organ that is an endocrine gland
Pancreas
Example of organ that is partly endocrine
kidney
The desired receptor for the specific hormone being released
target tissue
-Chemicals produced by a gland
-regulate the speed of a specific activity in a cell
hormones
hormone slowing down a cellular process
inhibit
Hormone speeding up a cellular process
stimulate
what are the two different types of hormone divided by structure
-Steroids
-Protein hormones
what is the structure of a steroid and give some examples
-lipid based hormones
-Cortisol,estrogen,
testosterone
How does a steroid get into the cells of its target tissue?
the lipid based hormone can get directly through the phospholipid bylayer of the plasma membrane
what process do steroids stimulate in the cell?
protein synthesis to create ensymes and building blocks
Where does transcription occur in the cell?
within the nucleus
where does translation occur in the cell?
in the ribosomes
What is the structure of protein based hormones and give some examples?
-Amino acid based
-thyroxin,oxytocin,insulin
What structure within the nucleus do steroids use during protein synthesis?
DNA
What is the pathway of a protein hormone for its activation of a cell
hormone is received by glycoprotien on surface of cell, this triggers the release of the G-protein,theis triggers the cAMP,cAMP triggers the specific enzyme
where does oxytocin come from and what is its target tissue?
-Posterior pituitary
-uterus and mamory glands
What is the main function of the Endocrine system
It maintains homeostasis
how are hormones transported and where are they transported to
they are transported by the blood and taken to their target cell
define Target Cell/organ
The Cell or organ that have the receptors for that specific hormone
define receptor
glycoprotein in cell membrane that combines with specific hormone and triggers activity in cell.
What are the functions of hormones
regulate the rate of an activity of target cell
what are the two methods of action of how the hormone get its message to the cell
-2nd Messenger Theory(fixed-membrane-receptor mechanism)
-Gene Activation(mobile-receptor mechanism)
Which method of action do Protein hormones utilize?
2nd Messenger Theory- they are not soluble in lipids therefore can't pass through the membrane.
Which method of action do steroids use?
Gene Activation- they are lipid based and can pass through the membrane easily.
What is the chain of events involved in the Gene Activation method of hormone reaction in a cell?
Steroid enters cell and combines with receptor in nucleus-activates gene-transcription-mRNA-ribosome-translation-specific enzyme produced-catalyzes specific reaction
What methods of control are used to determine the secretion of hormones?
Negative feedback and Positive feedback
what is negative feedback?
The inverse relationship between desired effect and production of hormones. Most hormones regulated this way.
What is positive feedback?
An increase in hormone causes a direct increase in the secretion of the same hormone.
Give some example of a hormone that is regulated by negative feedback.
ADH, Testosterone, Estrogen, Cortico Steroids
Give some example of a hormone that is regulated by positive feedback
Oxytocin,
name the gland located inferior to the hypothalamus within the sella turcica.
The Pituitary Gland
Name the two sections of the Pituitary gland.
the Anterior pituitary(Adenohypophysis) and the Posterior Pituitary (Neurohypophysis)
What kind of tissue does the Adenohypophysis derive from in the embryo?
it derives from endoderm the same as other gland in the body.
What are Regulating factors?
the chemicals released by the hypothalamus that tells the Adenohypophysis when to release or inhibit the release hormones.
What are the two different types of regulating factors released by the Hypothalamus?
Inhibiting Factors and Releasing Factors
What is the function of the inhibiting factors released by the hypothalamus.
the inhibiting factors inhibit the release of their specific hormone by the adenohypophosis.
What is the function of releasing factors released by the hypothalamus?
the releasing factors stimulate the release of their specific hormone by the adenohypophosis.
List the steps that take place when a hormone is release by the adenohypophysis.
Hypothalamus-releases regulating factors-carried through blood vessels to adenohypophysis-specific hormone is release or inhibited-it travels in blood to target cell.
give an example of a hormone and its regulating factors.
Prolactin-Prolactin Inhibiting Factor-Prolactin Releasing Factor
How many hormones are produced by the Adenohypophysis.
Seven hormones.
Name the hormones from the Adenohypophysis that have non-endocrine targets.
Human Growth Hormone-Prolactin-Melanocyte-Stimulating hormone.
Name the function and target tissue of Human Growth Hormone (HGH)
Bones, Muscles, Liver, Cartilage. It stimulates somatic growth.
What happens when not enough HGH is release during development?
Pituitary Dwarfism in Children.
What happens when too much HGH is released during development?
Gigantism in Children and acromegaly in adults.
Name the function and target tissue of Prolactin?
Mamary glands-stimulates production of milk after childbirth.
Name the function and target tissue of Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH)
Melanocytes(pigmented cells in skin)-Stimulate production of melanin (darker Skin) to protect DNA from the effects of the sun.
Name the Hormones released by the Adenohypophysis with Endocrine Targets (Tropic Hormones)
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone(TSH)-Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)-Follicle Stimulating Hormone(FSH)-Luteinizing Hormone(LH)
Name the function and target tissue of Thyroid Stimulating hormone (TSH).
Thyroid Gland-Stimulates production of thyroxin (controls metabolism/other organs)
Name the function and target tissue of Adrenocorticotropic Horone (ACTH)
Cortex of adrenal gland-stimulates production of glucocorticoids.
Name the function and target tissue of follicle Stimulating hormone (FSH)in the female.
Ovaries-Stimulates growth of follicle and production of ovum and the production of estrogen.
Name the function and target tissue of Follicle Stimulating Hormone in the male.
testes-Stimulates growth and production of sperm.
Name the function and target tissue of Luteinizing hormone (LH) in the female.
Ovary-stimulates release of the egg (ovulation).
Name the function and target tissue of Luteinizing Hormone (LH) in the male.
Interstitial cells of the Testis-Stimulates production of testosterone.
What is the Latin name for the Posterior Lobe of pituitary.
Neurohypophysis
What kind of tissue did the Neurohypophysis originate from in the embryo.
The neurohypophysis derived from the ectoderm which is the tissue that other nervous tissue derived from.
How the hypothalamus control the Posterior pituitary?
Hypothalamus-nerve impulse-posterior pituitary-releases hormones-blood vessels-target cells.
what are two hormones released by the posterior pituitary?
Oxytocin-Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)