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19 Cards in this Set

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What is regarded as the controlling centre of the endocrine system?
The hypothalamus-pituitary axis
Why is the hypothalamus-pituitary axis considered the controlling centre of the endocrine system?
It receives a variety of hormonal, neural, and other stimuli and responds by sending out hormones to the pituitary system
What hormones does the anterior pituitary gland release?
ADCH, TSH, growth hormone, follicle stimulating hormone
What uses the portal venous system to send hormones to the anterior pituitary?
The hypothalamus
What produces and stores oxytocin and ADH in the posterior pituitary?
The hypothalamus
By what does the hypothalamus send hormones to stimulate the posterior pituitary?
A neural connection
What are the main physiological effects of growth hormone on growth?
- increases protein synthesis
- increases the amount of cartilage
- activating osteoblasts
What are the main physiological effects of growth hormone on metabolism?
- increases circulating blood glucose
- induces an insensitivity to insulin
What are the clinical manifestations of hyper-secretion of growth hormone?
- enlarged organs
- enlarged facial features
- excess growth in length of bones at the epiphyseal plates (children)
- excess glucose in the blood and insulin resistance (hyperglycemia) (diabetes mellitus)
- glucose in the urine (kidneys cannot reabsorb all the glucose
-
What are the clinical manifestations of hypo-secretion of growth hormone?
- decrease in protein synthesis
- decrease in activation of osteoblasts (short stature in children)
- decrease in formation of cartilage (under-developed organs)
- decrease insensitivity to insulin
- decrease in blood glucose levels
- increased susceptibility to hypoglycemia in times of stress
What is "insulin resistance"?
The body's cells, which need glucose, are not responsive to the insulin produced by the pancreas.
How can someone become resistant to endogenous insulin?
- insulin doesn't bind to receptors properly due to a change in structure
- the second messenger in decreasing blood glucose does not work properly: does not send a message to the nucleus to upregulate glucose transport carriers to bring glucose into the cell and out of the bloodstream
What physiological actions do the mineralocorticoids have?
- save salt (Aldosterone) and in the process waste potassium and sodium and potassium are proportional to one another in the body
- ADH also saves water
What physiological actions do the glucocorticoids have?
- main action is to increase blood glucose levels
How do the glucocorticoids increase blood glucose levels?
- breaking down proteins and using them as energy supply
- examples of proteins that are broken down include blood vessels and skin
What physiological actions do the androgens have?
- androgens are anabolic steroids that mainly act to build muscles
- excess in females causes masculinisation: chin hair, excess hair in unwanted places, and enlargement of the clitorus
What physiological actions does adrenaline have?
- increases heart rate
- dilates pupils
- creates coldness in the extremities
Using a flow chart including negative feedback mechanisms, explain why a female with congenital adrenal hyperplasia demonstrates virilisation of the genitals.
Draw a flow chart depicting the adrenal cortex and the stress response.