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55 Cards in this Set

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What is the auricle composed of?
elastic cartilage
What two nerves provide sensory innervation to the auricle and external acoustic meatus?
1. auriculotemporal n.(V3)
2. greater auricular n. (branch of the cervical plexus, C2-3)
What is the blood supply to the auricle and external acoustic meatus? What are these vessels branches of?
1. posterior auricular artery
2. superficial temporal artery
Both are branches of the external carotid a.
the external acoustic meatus stretches from the _________ to the ___________.
concha to the tympanic membrane
In the external acoustic meatus: the lateral 2/3 of the canal is _____________, while the medial 2/3 is __________.
cartilage
bone (temporal bone)
the skin lining the external acoustic meatus is continuous with the ___________.
tympanic membrane
What portion of the malleus articulates with tympanic membrane?
the handle and lateral processes of the malleus articulate with the tympanic membrane
The lateral wall of the middle ear is formed by the ______________.
tympanic membrane
what is the sensory innervation to the external surface of the tympanic membrane?
1. auriculotemporal n. (V3)
2. auricular branch of CN X
what is the sensory innervation to the INTERNAL surface of the tympanic membrane?
glossopharyngeal n. (IX)
List the bony contents of the tympanic cavity.
malleus, incus, stapes
Name the muscles (2) found in the tympanic cavity. What is the innervation to each?
1. stapedius - branch of facial n. (VII)
2. tensor tympani - mandibular n. (V3)
The chorda tympani is a branch of which nerve? What information does it carry?
facial n. (VII)
carries taste from anterior 2/3 of tongue
the tympanic plexus of nerves arises from the ___________ nerve and from sympathetic fibers of__________.
1. glossopharyngeal n. (IX)
2. the internal carotid plexus
What provides sensory innervation to the mucosa of the tympanic cavity, the pharyngotympanic tube and the mastoid air cells?
tympanic plexus
The tegmentum tympani separates __________ from ________. This is known as the __________ recess.
separates the tympanic cavity from the middle cranial fossa.
epitympanic recess
The floor of the tympanic cavity separates ___________ from ___________.
separates the tympanic cavity from jugular bulb
the lateral wall of the tympanic cavity consists of _________.
the tympanic membrane
The medial wall of the tympanic cavity consists of _________.
the oval window, stapes base, cochlear promontory, round window.
The anterior wall of the tympanic cavity opens into _____1_____ and ______2_____.
1. pharyngotympanic tube
2. canal for tensor tympani
The posterior wall of the tymp. cavity provides passage between the ________ and _________. This passage contains _________.
tympanic cavity and the mastoid antrum.
Contains a canal for the facial n.
Where exactly is the tympanic plexus located?
The tympanic plexus sits on the PROMONTORY. (not on the tympanic membrane as many think)
The chorda tympani runs anterior -> posterior, and it weaves between what two important structures?
the tensor tympani and malleus
What are the contents of the bony labyrinth ? (3)
1. Cochlea
2. Vestibule
3. Semicircular canals
the bony cells in the inner ear contain ___________.
perilymph
The semicircular canals, utricle and saccule are components of the _______________.
vestibular system
Where are otolith organs called maculae found? Which system are they involved with?
found in the utricle and saccule of the vestibular system.
The ________ maculae are found on the lateral wall, whereas the _________ maculae are found on the floor.
Utricle maculae on lateral wall
Saccule maculae on floor
Receptor cells for the vestibular system are mostly __________, with one long _____________.
microvilli
kinocilium
cells that are surrounded by one large, cup shaped afferent nerve ending are ________ (Type I or II) cells.
Type I
cells that are surrounded by multiple afferent nerve endings are called _________ (Type I or II) cells.
Type II
Efferent endings on both type I and II cells are ________ (+) or (-).
(-)
1. The surface covered with calcium carbonate crystals known as ____________.
2. What lies directly beneath the otolith layer?
1. Otoliths
2. a gelatinous, glycoprotein layer
The otoliths pull the gelatinous covering in response to _______________.
changes in position related to gravity.
Hair cells deflected TOWARDS the kinocilium causes ___________ (+) or (-), whereas hair cells deflected AWAY from the kinocilium cause ___________. (+) or (-)
Towards - excitation
Away - inhibition
_________ are sensitive to gravity; they help to percieve movement and orientation in space. They are also used to maintain equilibrium and balance.
Maculae
Semicircular ducts lie within the semicircular canals; they have enlarged regions called ampulae that contain ________________.
cristae ampullaris receptors
The semicircular ducts are very similar to the maculae. What is the difference?
Walls are thicker
gelatinous convering much thicker and is called the cupula.
There are no otoliths
What will cause the cupula to bend?
acceleration or deceleration of the head.
Once the cupula bends what happens?
Bending of the cupula causes bending of the hair cells; this causes either depolarization (bending towards the kinocilium) or hyperpolarization (bending away from the kinocilium)
What is the proposed function of the endolymphatic sac and duct?
thought to absorb endolymph and remove debris via endocytosis
The cochlear duct, organ of Corti and scala vestibuli are components of _________.
the auditory system
The scala vestibuli and tympani are filled with ________.
perilymph
The stapes transmits sound waves to the inner ear via ___________.
the oval window
Once transmitted by the oval window, sound waves cause shearing and oscillation of ____________.
The organ of Corti
What structure relieves wave pressure in the inner ear?
the round window
What is the stria vascularis and what is it's function?
vascularized epithelium in the lateral wall of the Cochlear Duct. It controls the ion content of endolymph.
The Organ of Corti is separated from the Scala Vestibuli by the ________ membrane; also separated from the Scala Typmani by the ___________ membrane.
Vestibular membrane
Basilar membrane
Is there a kinocilium in the organ of Corti?
NO. There is one "tallest hair" that has a basal body
_________ cells are found between inner and outer hair cells: they form an "inner tunnel" between the outer and inner hair cells. Why is this tunnel important?
Pillar Cells
The inner tunnel is used in sound transduction
Which ganglion innvervates the inner and outer hair cells of the Organ of Corti?
The Spiral Ganglion
In terms of auditory function: what occurs during Compression? How about rarefaction?
Compression - during lateral shearing of stereocilia, the tips deflect away from the basal body.
Rarefaction - membranes and stereocilia move in the opposite direction
Movement of the sterocilia causes ____________ in the hair cells.
depolarization and neurotransmitter release
Depolarization and action potential release of the hair cells causes _____________.
an action potential to fire in the axons of the spiral ganglion neurons
_______ frequency sound in detected at the base of the cochlear duct, whereas ________ frequency sound in detected at the apex of the cochlear duct.
High - at base
Low - at apex