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50 Cards in this Set

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Alimentary Canal also called the Gastrointestinal (GI) tract
A continuous, coiled, hollow, muscular tube that winds through the ventral body cavity and is open at both ends. Its organs are the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.
Uvula
A fleshy, fingerlike projection of the soft palate, which extends downward from its posterior edge.
Lingual Frenulum
A fold of mucous membrane, that secures the tongue to the floor of the mouth and limits its posterior movements.
Esophagus or Gullet
Runs from the pharynx through the diaphragm to the stomach. It is about 25cm long, and is a passageway that conducts food to the stomach.
Mucosa
The innermost layer, a moist membrane that lines the cavity, or lumen of the organ. It consists of a surface epithelium and a small amount of connective tissue.
Submucosa
Found just beneath the mucosa. It is a soft connective tissue layer that contains blood vessels, nerve endings, lymph nodules and lymphatic vessels.
Muscularis Externa
A muscle layer typically made up of an inner circular layer and an outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle cells.
Serosa
The outermost layer of the wall. Consists of a single layer of flat serous fluid producing cells.
Stomach
On the left side of the abdominal cavity, nearly hidden by the liver and diaphragm.
Greater Omentum
Extension of the peritoneum. It drapes downward and covers the abdominal organs like a lacy apron before attaching to the posterior body wall. The greater omentum is riddled with fat, which helps to insulate, cushion, and protect the abdominal organs.
Chyme
This occurs after food has been processed in the stomach. It a mixture that resembles heavy cream. The Chyme enters the small intestine through the pyloric sphincter.
ileocecal valve
The small intestine extends from the pyloric sphincter to the ilecocecal valve.
Mircovilli
Tiny projections of the plasma membrane of the mucosa cells that give the cell surface a fuzzy appearance, they are sometimes referred to as the brush border.
Villi
Fingerlike projections of the mucosa that give it a velvety appearance.
Circular folds also called Plicae Ciculares
Deep folds of both mucosa and submucosa layers. They do not disappear when food fills the small intestine.
Large Intestine
Larger in diameter than the small intestine, but it is shorter in length. It extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus. Its major functions are to dry out the indigestible food residues from he body.
Small Intestine
The body's major digestive organ. Within its passageways usable food is prepared for its journery into the cells of the body.
Ascending Colon
Travels up the right side of the abdominal cavity and makes a turn, to travel across the abdominal cavity as the transverse colon.
Haustra
Since Tenia Coli usually display some degree of tone, they cause the wall to pucker into the small pocketlike sacs, called Haustra.
Salivary Amylase
Begins the process of starch digestion in the mouth. This is an enzyme that is contained by the Bolus, which is a clear serous portion.
Masticate, or Chew
A person does this by opening and closing our jaws and moving them from side to side while continually using our tongue to move the food between our teeth. In this process, the teeth tear and grind the food, breaking it down into smaller fragments.
Pulp Cavity
Sorrounded by the Dentin, it contains a number of structures (Connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerve fibers) collectively called pulp.
Pulp
Pulp supplies nutrients to the tooth tissues and provides for tooth sensations. Where the pulp cavity extends into the root, it becomes the root canal.
Root Canal
Provides a route for blood vessels, nerves, and other pulp structures to enter the pulp cavity of the tooth.
Pancreas
A soft, pink, triangular gland that extends across the abdomen from the spleen to the duodenum.
Gallbladder
A small, thin walled green sac that snuggles in a shallow fossa in the inferior surface of the liver.
Cystic Duct
When food digestion id not occurring, bile backs up the cystic duct, and enters the gallbladder to be stored.
Ingestion
Food must be placed into the mouth before it can be acted on. This is an active, voluntary process called ingestion.
Peristalsis
Involuntary and involves alternating waves of contraction and relaxation of the muscles in the organ wall.
Segmentation
Helps to propel foodstuffs through the small intestine, it normally only moves food back and forth across the internal wall of the organ, serving to mix it with the digestive juices.
Absorption
The transport of digested end products the lumen of the GI tracts to the blood or lymph is the absorption. For absorption to occur the digested foods must first enter the mucosal cells by active or passive transport processes.
Defecation
The elimination of indigestible substances from the body via the anus in the form of feces.
Deglutition or Swallowing
Complicated process that involves the coordinated activity of several structures.
Pharyngeal-esophageal phase
Transports food through the pharynx and esophagus.
Gastrin
Prods the stomach glands to produce still more of the protein digesting enzymes, mucus, and hydrochloric acid.
Brush Border Enzymes
Break down double sugars into simple sugars and complete protein digestion.
Secretin and Cholecystokinin
Influence the release of pancreatic juice and bile.
Feces
More or less solid product delivered to the rectum, contain undigested food residues, mucus, millions of bacteria, and just enough water to allow their smooth passage.
Mass Movements
Long, slow moving but powerful contractile waves that move over large areas of the colon three or four times daily and force the contents toward the rectum.
Defecation Reflex
A spinal reflex that causes the walls of the sigmoid colon and the rectum to contract and the anal sphincters to relax.
ATP
The chemical energy form needed by body cells to drive their many activities.
Coenzymes
Most vitamins function as coenzymes, meaning they act with an enzyme to accomplish a particular type of catalysis.
Metabolism
All chemical reactions that are necessary to maintain in life.
Catabolism and Anabolism
Catabolism: in which substances are broken down to simpler substances, Anabolism: in which larger molecules or structures are built form smaller ones.
Low-Density lipoproteins or LDLs
Transport cholesterol and other lipids to body cells where they are used in various ways.
High-Density lipoproteins or HDLs
The levels of HDLs are considered good because the cholesterol is destined to be broken down and eliminated form the body.
Energy Intake
The energy liberated during food oxidation, that is, during the reactions of glycolysis, the krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain.
Energy Output
Includes the energy we immediately lose as heat, plus that used to do work, plus energy that is stored in the form of fat or glycogen.
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
The amount of heat produced by the body per unit of time when it is under basal conditions, which means, at rest.
Total Metabolic Rate (TMR)
Refers to the total amount of kilocalories the body must consume to fuel all ongoing activities.