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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the purposes of the digestive system?
1 Take in food
2 Breakdown food into nutrient molecules
3 Absorb molecules into blood
4 Rid the body of indigestible remains
What is the name for the continuous tube from the mouth to the anus that performs actual digestion and absorption?
GI tract/Alimentary Canal
What is included in the GI tract?
Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, sm/lg intestine, anal canal
What mechanically and/or chemically contribute to the breakdown of food?
Accessory digestive organs
The accessory digestive organs are connected to the GI tracts via what?
What are include in the accessory digestive organs?
Teeth, tongue, salivary glands, gall bladder, liver, pancreas
What is the name for the introduction of solid or liquid food?
What is the process when food is mechanically brokendown by the teeth to increase SA of food for functioning of digestive enzymes?
What is the term for the movement of food forward from the oral cavity to the esphagus?
What is the term that is described as smooth muscle contractions that move food forward from the esphagus to the stomach?
Deglutition and peristalis are examples of what digestive fxn?
What is the term that involves contractions that move food back and forth w/in the tract so that all sufaces are exposed to digestive juices?
This digestive process includes muscus, water, and enzymes and it is added to liquefy, lubricate, and digest food?
Where does absorption mainly occur?
Sm intestine
What is the smallest chemical brotken down from fats?
Fatty acids and glycerol
What do carbohydrates breakdown to for absorption?
How do waste products of digestion remve from the body?
Through defecation
What is the serous membrane of the abdominopelvic cavity?
What covers the external surface of most digestive organs?
Visceral peritoneum
What lines the walls of the abdominopelvic cavity?
Parietal peritoneum
What is the additional double wall of peritoneum called?
What are the 3 fxns of mesentery?
stores fat, holds organs in place, and privides routes for blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves to reach viscera
What is the layer of the GI tract that contains of simple columnar epithelium and consists of goblet cells?
What type of cells are in the mucosa that produce mucus for the purpose of protection of organs that produce enzymes from self-absorption?
Goblet cells
What is the specific layer that contains MALT (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue)?
Lamina propria
What is the thin layer of smooth muscle that contract to dislodge food particles stuck in the GI tract folds?
Muscularis mucosa
What is the thick CT layer that contains small glands, nerves, and bvs and elastic fibers to help return stomach to normal size after distension?
What is the portion of the submucosa that contains parasympathetic fibers?
Submucosal plexus
What is the layer that is responsible for propulsion and mixing which controls the lumen and length?
Muscularis externa
What is the portion of the muscularis externa that contains parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers?
Myenteric plexus
What is the outermost layer of the GI tract that is covered by visceral peritoneum?
What is the serosa layer in the esophagus called?
The buccal cavity is another name for what?
What is the name for the antimicrobial peptides that the oral mucosa produces?
What is the muscle that forms the lips?
orbicularis oris
What forms the cheeks?
Buccinator muscle and buccal fat pads
What part of the oral cavity provides a surface for food?
Hard palate
What give rise to the uvula?
Soft palate
What is the name for food that is mixed with saliva up until it leaves the stomach?
What is the structure that secures the tongue to the floor of the mouth?
Lingual frenulum
What is the most numerous papillae that contains keratin?
Filiform papillae
What is the papillae that if widely scattered over the tongue surface and house tast buds for sour, salty, and sweet?
Fungiform papillae
What papillae house the taste buds for bitter and lie in a row at the back of the tongue?
Circumvallate papillae
What is the structure that produce and secrete saliva?
Salivary glands
What does saliva contain which begins CHO digestion?
Salivary amylase
What is the gland anterior to the ear?
What is the gland under the mucosa of the mouth floor?
What is the gland that is posterior and lateral to the chin?
Submandibular gland
Is saliva slightly acidic or slightly basic?
acidic (6.5-7)
What does saliva contain for microorganism defense?
Defensins, IgA, and lysozymes
What part of the autonomic NS is salivation controlled by?
Parasympathetic NS
Where are afferent message sent to when ingestion or smelling of food activates the chemoreceptors?
Medulla oblongata and pons
Efferent signals from salivation release what neurotransmitter from cranial nerves VII (facial) and IX (glossopharyngeal)?
From the mouth what part of the pharynx does food pass to next?
Oropharynx then laryngopharynx
The esophagus passes thru the diaphragm via what opening?
Esophageal hiatus
What is the name of the sphincter that connects the esophagus and stomach?
gastroesphageal sphincter
When the stomach is empty, the mucosa and submucosa forms what?
What is the opening that joins the small intestine to the stomach and is surround by a sphincter?
Pyloric opening
What does mucosa contain that are openings for gastric glands?
Gastric pits
What glandular secretory cells secrete an acidic mucus?
Mucous neck cells
What do parietal cells secrete?
HCl and intrinsic factor
What is the purpose of HCl in the stomach?
It creates the acidic environment necessary to convert inactive pepsingogen into active pepsin
What is the glycoprotein needed for absorption of vitamin B12 (to help produce mature RBCs)?
Intrinsic factor
What hormone-like product stimulates stomach secretion and motility?
What hormone-like product activates parietal cells specifically to release HCl?
What hormonone-like product released in the stomach are opiates that can act as appetite suppressants?
What hormone-like product causes the contraction of stomach muscles?
What hormone-like product inhibits gastric secretion and motility?
What is the exposed part of the tooth above the gingiva?
What is the crown of the tooth covered by?
What is mineralized with Ca salts and hyroxyapatite?
What is the fxn of enamel?
To protect the tooth against abrasions and acid produced from bacteria
The root of the tooth is covered by calcified CT called what?
What structure attaches the root of the tooth and anchors it to the gomphosis joint?
Periodontal ligament
What organ produces enzymes that digest all categories of food?
What is the name for the food that leaves the stomach and into the small intestine?
Pancreatic juice leaves the pancreas via what?
Pancreatic duct
What are the pancreatic cells that house zymogen granules and produce a bicarb-rich fluid to help neutralize acidic chyme from stomach?
Acinar cells
What are inactive digestive enzymes that become active in the small intestine?
What is the enzyme that turns trypsinogen into trypsin?
What is needed for procarboxypeptidase to turn into carboxypeptidase and chymotrypsingogen into chymotrypsin?
The entry of bile and pancreatic juices is controlled by what?
Sphincter of Oddi
What are insulin secretion cells?
Beta cells
What are the endocrine cells that produce and release hormones?
Islets of Langerhans
What do alpha cells release?
What is the active pancreatic enzyme released that breakdown RNA/DNA?
Hormones are released from what organ and target what organ?
Small intestine; pancreas
What hormone is released in reponse to the presence of HCl in the SI and causes the release of bicarb-rich fluid from the pancreas?
What is hormone is released in response to the presence of CHO, proteins, and fats which stimulates the release of zymogens from pancreas?
After stretch receptors send afferent signals to CNS, efferent signals are sent via what nerve causing pancreatic secretion, contrac of gall bladder and relaxation of sphincter of oddi?