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124 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define ascites.
Abnormal accumulation of fluid within peritoneal cavity.
Define bruxism.
Grinding/clenching of teeth, usual during sleep.
Define dysphagia.
Difficulty swallowing.
Define enteritis.
Inflammation of intestine (small).
Define ileus.
Condition where all GI tract movement stops and gut appears paralyzed.
Define proctology.
Branch of medicine dealing with treatment of diseases of colon, rectum, anus.
Define pyloric stenosis.
Congenital abnormality where pyloric sphincter is abnormally constricted.
Define xerostomia.
Extreme dryness of mouth; caused by salivary gland blockage. (aka Sjogren's syndrome)
Name the organs of the alimentary canal.
Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small & large intestines, pharynx.
Name the organs of the accessory digestive system.
Teeth tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas.
What are the 6 functional processes of the digestive system?
Ingestion, propulsion, mechanical digestion, chemical digestion, absorption, defecation.
The digestive viscera is served by?
The splanchnic circulation.
What part of the throat is continuous with the GI tract?
Oropharynx posteriorly.
What are the boundaries of the mouth?
Lips, cheeks, palate, and tongue.
What type of cell structure is found in the oral mucosa?
Stratified squamous epithlium.
All organs of the GI tract have what type of tissue layers in their walls?
Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa.
What glands produce saliva?
Buccal glands and 3 pairs of major salivary glands: parotid, submandibular, sublingual.
What chemicals compose saliva?
Water, ions, proteins, metabolic wastes, lysozyme, defensins, IgA, salivary amylase, cyanide compound, mucin.
What are the functions of saliva?
Moistens/cleanses mouth, moistens foods, begins chemical digestern of starch.
How is saliva's output increased?
By parasympathetic reflexes initiated by activation of chemical and pressure receptors in mouth and conditioned reflexes.
When do baby teeth start to shed?
Age 6.
Name the classes of teeth.
Canines, incisors, molars, premolars. (CIMP)
What is the composition of a tooth.
Enamel-covered crown, cementum-covered root, dentin which surrounds central pulp cavity.
How are teeth secured in the mouth?
Periodontal ligament.
What is the function of teeth?
To masticate (chew) food.
Which secretory cells are found in the gastric glands?
pepsinogen-producing chief cells in gastric glands; parietal cells, intrinsic factor, mucous neck cells and enteroendocrine cells.
How is protein digestion initiated in the stomach?
Activated pepsin.
What are the 3 phases of gastric secretion?
Cephalic, Gastric, and intestinal
What are the 3 subdivisions of the small intestine?
Duodenum, Jejunum, and Ileum.
What is the major digestive and absorptive organ?
Small intestine.
What is the liver's digestive role?
Produce bile.
What stimulates bile production?
Bile salts, secretin, and vagal stimulation.
What cells make bile?
What happens during the Buccal phase?
This voluntary action occurs in the mouth where bolus is forced into oropharynx.
What stimulates the gallbladder to contract?
Cholecystokinin (released by small intestine).
What are the subdivisions of the large intestine?
Cecum, colon, rectum and anal canal.
What are the major functions of the large intestine?
Absorption of water, electrolytes, vitamins, and defecation.
How is the defection reflex triggered?
When feces enter the rectum.
What two ingredients are necessary for fat breakdown?
Bile and pancreatic juice.
What are some important congenital abnormalities of the digestive tract?
Cleft palate/lip, tracheoesophageal fistula, and cystic fibrosis.
Define alimentary canal.
AKA gastrointestinal (GI) tract, continuous, muscular digestive tube winding through body.
Mechanical digestion involves what processes?
Chewing, mixing food with saliva, churning food and segmentation.
Define segmentation.
Process mixing food with digestive juices, which increases efficiency of absorption by repeatedly moving different food mass parts over intestinal wall.
Define chemical digestion.
Catabolic steps where complex food molecules are broken down by enzymes.
Define absorption.
Passage of digested end products from lumen of GI tract through mucosal cells by active or passive transport into blood or lymph.
What occurs during the Pharyngeal-Esophageal phase?
This involuntary action occurs when food is squeezed through pharynx into esophagus.
What is the vestibule?
The recess bounded externally by lips and cheeks and internally by gums and teeth.
What is mechanical digestion?
Physical process of preparing food for chemical digestion.
Which peritoneum covers external surfaces of most digestive organs?
Which peritoneum lines the body wall of the abdominopelvic cavity?
Define mesentery.
Double-layer of peritoneum extending to digestive organs from body wall.
What is purpose of mesentery?
To hold organs in place and store fat.
The digestive system is served by what circulatory system?
What is mucosa?
Innermost, moist, epithelial membrane lining digestive tract.
What is submucosa?
Moderately dense connective tissue layer containing blood and lymphatic vessels, lymphoid follicles, and nerve fibers.
Muscularis externa functions in what two processes?
Peristalsis and segmentation.
What is a serosa?
Protective outer layer of intraperitoneal organs.
What is the mouth?
Stratified squamous epithelial mucosa-lined cavity with boundaries of lips, cheeks, palate and tongue.
What are some functions of the tongue?
To reposition food when chewing; mix food with saliva; initiate swallowing; help speak consonants.
What is deglutition?
What are the 2 phases of deglutition?
Buccal phase-voluntary, occurs in mouth where bolus is forced into oropharynx, and pharyngeal-esophageal phase-involuntary, occurs when food is squeezed through pharynx, into esophagus.
What are the functions of the stomach?
Storage tank where chemical breakdown of proteins starts and food is converted to chyme.
What are the major regions of the stomach?
Cardiac, Fundus, Body and Plyloric.
The convex lateral surface of the stomach is known as?
Greater curvature.
The convex medial surface of the stomach is known as?
Lesser curvature.
What features help to tie the stomach to other digestive organs and body wall?
Lesser and greater omentums.
What is the microscopic composition of the stomach's mucosa?
Simple columnar epithelium composed of goblet cells.
Gastric secretions are controlled by what?
Neural and hormonal mechanisms and act in 3 distinct phases: Cephallic, Gastric and Intestinal phase.
What do the interstitial cells of Cajal do?
Establish stomach's basic electrical rhythm of peristaltic waves.
What factors determine the rate at which the stomach empties?
Contents of stomach and processing occurring in small intestine.
What 3 microscopic modifications make the small intestine adapted for absorption?
Plicae circulares, villa and microvilli.
What 2 things should you know about the liver?
Largest gland in body; has 4 lobes.
What is bile?
Yellow-green, alkaline solution containing bile salts, bile pigments, cholesterol, neutral fats, phospholipids, and a variety of electrolytes.
What does the gallbladder do?
Stores/concentrates bile not needed immediately for digestion.
Pancreatic juice consists of what?
Mainly water; also enzymes that break down categories of foodstuffs and electrolytes.
Secretion of pancreatic juice is regulated by what?
Local hormones and parasympathetic nervous system.
Where do substances required for chemical digestion come from?
They are imported from pancreas and liver.
What is the most common motion of the small intestine?
What are 3 unique features of the large intestine?
Teniae coli, Haustra, and Epiploic Appendages
What are the subdivisions of the large intestine?
Cecum, Appendix, Colon, Rectum, and Anal Canal.
What movements can be seen in the large intestine?
Haustral contractions, mass movements.
What part does mass movements play in defecation?
They force feces into the rectum, stretching rectal wall and initiating defecation.
What are Monosaccharides?
Simple sugars that are absorbed immediately (glucose, galactose, fructose).
What is the digestible polysaccharide found in the diet?
Where does chemical digestion of carbohydrates begin?
In the mouth where salivary amylase breaks large polysaccharides into small fragments.
What 2 proteins are digested into amino acids in the GI tract?
Dietary; enzyme.
What type of cells are responsible for the production of pepsin?
Chief cells.
Where is Rennin produced and what does it do?
Infants produce rennin and it breaks down milk proteins.
Name two pancreatic enzymes.
Trypsin, Chymotrypsin.
Name the brush border enzymes.
Carboxypeptidase, Aminopeptidase, and
What do brush border enzymes do?
Freeing single amino acids in the small intestine.
What are lipases?
Enzymes, secreted by pancreas, that digest fat after they have been pretreated with bile.
Where does absorption take place?
Along entire length of small intestine.
What is actively absorbed along entire length of small intestine?
What is the most abundant substance in chyme?
What is the red margin?
Reddened area where lipstick is or one kisses.
What is the labial frenulum?
Median fold joining internal aspect of each lip to gum.
What type of muscles are found in the tongue?
Intrinsic and extrinsic skeletal muscles.
What actions can be performed with intrinsic muscles?
Change shape, Become thicker, thinner, longer, shorter for speech and swallowing.
What actions can be performed with extrinsic muscles?
protrude, retract, move side-to-side.
What secures tongue to floor of mouth and limits posterior movements?
Fold of mucosa called lingual frenulum.
What is Ankyloglossia?
Congenital condition with extremely short lingual frenulum; tongue-tied.
What is Filiform Papillae?
Smallest, most numerous type of papillae, aligned in parallel rows on tongue dorsum.
Keratin gives the tongue what qualities?
Stiffens papillae; gives whitish appearance.
What are the other two types of papillae found on tongue's surface?
Fungiform and Circumvallate (aka Vallate) papillae.
How do dental caries occur?
Gradual demineralization of enamel and dentin by bacterial action.
What are G cells?
Gastrin-secreting enteroendocrine cells.
What is the 1st phase of Gastric secretion?
Cephalic (Reflex) - Inputs from olfactory receptors and taste buds are relayed to hypothalmus, which stimulates vagal nuclei of medulla oblongata.
What are some triggers for the 1st phase of gastric secretion?
Aroma, taste, sight, thought of food.
What is the 2nd phase of Gastric secretion?
Gastric - Lasts 3-4 hours. Stomach distension activates stretch receptors, impulses to medulla. Let to ACh release.
What are the triggers for the 2nd phase of gastric secetion?
Distension, peptides and low acidity.
What is the 3rd phase of gastric secretion?
Intestinal - excitatory and inhibitory. Excitatory is set into motion as partially digested food fills duodenum of small intestine.
What is the 2nd component of 3rd phase?
Inhibitory component triggered in form of enterogastric reflex.`
What is chemical digestion?
Catabolic process where large food molecules are broken down to chemical building blocks (Monomers).
What are monosaccharides?
Simple sugars absorbed immediately. (glucose, galactose, fructose).
What are disaccharides?
Composed of two monosaccharides bonded together. Maltose, lactose, sucrose)
What do brush border enzymes do?
Work on freeing single amino acids in small intestine.
Name the boarder enzymes.
Carboxypeptidase, Aminopeptidase, and Dipeptidase.
What are lipases?
Enzymes that digest fats after they have been pretreated with bile.
What type of vitamins does the small intestine absorb?
What type of vitamins does the large intestine absorb?
Vitamins B and K
How are micelles formed and for what purpose?
Monoglycerides and free fatty acids of lipid digestion become associated with bile salts and lecithin; purpose: lipid absorption.
How long does it take for the alimentary canal to form in the womb?
8 weeks.
What changes in the digestive system take place as aging occurs?
GI tract motility declines; digestive juic production decreases; absorption less efficient; peristalsis slows creating constipation.