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29 Cards in this Set

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the balancing of water retention with proper salt concentration
osmoregulation
term that describes body fluids higher in concentration of salts relative to the external environment
hypertonic
body fluids that have less salt (solute) concentration relative to the environment
hypotonic
term for animals that allow the osmotic concentration of their body fluids to remain at about the same level as that of the medium in which they are living.
osmoconformers
term for animals that maintain the osmotic concentration of the water in which they are living.
osmoregulator
excretory organs of many freshwater invertebrates
nephrid organs
excretory organs in insects and other terrestrial arthopods
malpighian tubules
portion of the kidney which contains the lower portion of the loop of Henle and is permeable to urea
inner medula
recapturing of desirable ions, metabolites and water from the filtrate
reabsorption
compare osmoregulation in freshwater vertebrates, marine vertebrates and land vertebrates.
the body fluids in freshwater vertebrates are hypertonic relative to their environment, therefore they must excrete water to prevent the fluids within them from being diluted. In contrast, marine animals have body fluids hypotonic relative to their environment so they must retain water to prevent dehydration.
major excretory organ of land vertebrates
kidney
waste products from nitrogen metabolism
urea
inner region of the kidney
medulla
process in which blood passes through a glomerulus that retains blood cells and proteins but allows passage of water and small molecules such and amino acids, glucose and salts into a renal tubule
filtration
insoluble waste produced by birds and terrestrial reptiles
uric acid
filtration apparatus at the proximal end of each nephron tube
malpighian corpuscle
portion of the kidney which contains the upper portion of the loop of henle where reabsorption of salt from the filtrate by active transport occurs
outer medulla
first secretes and excretes K+, H+, NH+4, certain drugs and foreign organic materials
secretion
outer layer of the kidney
cortex
fluid that passes out of the capillaries of each glomerulus and enters the part of the renal tubule where reabsorption takes place
glomerular filtrate
hairpin loop located between the proximal and distal segments of the renal tubule
loop of henle
nephron tube in a mammalian kidney
renal tube
fine network of capillaries that act as a filtration device
glomerulus
functional unit of the kidney
nephron
list the three major functions that are carried on by all vertebrate kidneys
filtration, reabsorption, secretion
what two solutes are involved in the countercurrent exchange set up in the loop of henle of the nephron
salt and urea
what are the two functional zones of the kidney
outer medulla- the outer portion of the kidney that contains the upper portion of the loop where reabsorption of salt from the filtrate by active transport occurs. Inner medulla- the inner portion of the kidney that contains the lower portion of the loop and is permeable to urea
what are the three general solutions to the problem of transporting and removing ammonia from the vertebrate body?
1. flushing: protein breakdown in the gills carried away in the water passing across the gills. 2. detoxification: conversion of ammonia to urea which is far less toxic and can be transported and excreted at higher concentrations. 3. Insolubilization: process used by birds and terrestrial reptiles which converts ammonia to insoluble uric acid for elimination as a semisolid paste (guano)
give two examples of how the central nervous system regulates kidney function
the hypothalumus controls water and salt balance and hence regulates the kidney functions. Vasopressin (ADH) produced by the hypothalmus is released or repressed dendent upon molarity. Sodium levels affect the production of aldosterone which in turn acts to increase salt reabsorption and so decrease the amount of sodium that is lost in urine.