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31 Cards in this Set

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Define atom, element, compound, and molecule.
Atom: is the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element.

Element: Substance that can't be broken down into other substances by chemical means.

Compound: When there is 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio.

Molecule: Particle made of 2 or more atoms joined together by chemical bonds.
Know the four most common elements that occur in the body.
1- Oxygen (O)
2- Carbon (C)
3- Hydrogen (H)
4- Nitrogen (N)
5- Calcium (Ca)
Be familiar with the subatomic particles(electrons, neutrons, protons)and their characteristics.
Proton: subatomic particle with 1 positive electrical charge.

Electron: subatomic particle with 1 negative electrical charge.

Neutron: subatomic particle with no charge (neutral).
Describe the basic attributes of an atom including atomic number, mass number, isotopes, and electron arrangement.
Atomic number: represents the characteristic number of protons in the nucleus.

Atomic mass: the number of neutrons and protons.

Isotopes: A different form of an atom that has the same number of protons and electrons but a different number of neutrons making the atom unstable and easily breaks apart.

The nucleus consists of neutrons and protons. The first outer shell(least amount of energy) holds 2 electrons. The 2nd outer shell(more energy) holds up to 8 electrons. The 3rd outer shell (even more energy) holds up to 8 electrons.
Be able to draw an element with its electrons.
Hydrogen: (H)
1 electron, 1 proton, no neutrons.

Oxygen: (O)
8 electrons, 8 protons, 8 neutrons.

Sodium: (Na)
11 electrons, 11 protons, 11 neutrons.
Describe the 3 different chemical bonds and the two goals that all elements want to achieve.
Covalent Bond: (strongest)
A bond in which the sharing of electrons between atoms results in each atom having a maximally filled outermost shell of electrons.

Ionic Bond:(Moderate)
The bond between two oppositely charged atoms or molecules that were formed by the permanent transfer of one or more electrons.

Hydrogen bond: (Weakest)
The bond between oppositely charged regions of molecules that contain covalently bonded hydrogen atoms.

The 2 goals that all elements want to achieve is to
1- Breaking down of elements to simpler compounds.
2- Combining different elements to form different elements.
What is the difference between between a non-polar covalent bond and a polar covalent bond?
The non-polar covalent bonds: the electrons shared by other atoms in the bonds are shared equally, and will be harder to interact with water.

The polar colvalent bonds:
The electrons shared by the atoms spend a greater amount of time, closer to the Oxygen nucleus that the Hydrogen nucleus. This unequal electron pattern is a charge separation in the molecule where the Oxygen has partial negative charge and teh Hydrogens have a partial positive charge. These kinds of bonds can lead to a weak bond of Hydrogen bond.
Why is water considered polar?
Water is a polar molecule because the unequal sharing of electrons causes the Hydrogen molecules to have a partially (+) positive charge and the Oxygen molecule to have a partially (-)negative charge.
Water is a versatile solvent and can moderate body temperature. Explain how the polarity of water molecules and/or hydrogen bonds with other water molecules create these properties.
Since hydrogen bonds are broken easily when they reach the surface of the skin from the hot body, molecules at the surface are broken by heat, some of the water escape into air as water vapor. (sweat)
Define acid, base and pH scale.
In pure water the number of H+ ions = the number of OH- ions(- or + charged atoms)
If the solution is acidic, then the number of H+ ions is greater than the number of OH- ions.
Conversely if the number of OH- ions is greater than the number of H+ ions, then the solution is basic.

---Acid is a substance which increases the concentration of H+ in a solution.

---Base is a substance which reduces the concentration of H+ in a solution.

---pH (potential hydrogen)is scale used to measure the acidity of solutions. The scale ranges from 0 to 14. 0 being the most acidic, 7 is neutral (blood), and 14 is the least acidic.
What are organic molecules?
Cells contain many organic molecules. Mostly carbon & other elements held together by covalent bonds.
These molecules are essential to life. Many of them are acquired from the food we eat.
Why is carbon considered the structural backbone of life? Explain in terms of its structure.
Carbon is the common building block of all organic molecules because of the many ways it can form strong covalent bonds with other atoms. 18% of the human is built from carbon bonds. Carbon has six electrons, 2 on its outer shell, 4 on its outer shell. Carbon has 4 available electron spots on this shell and is most stable when it shares or fills it to make electrons. Carbon has a natural tendency to form up to 4 covalent bonds with other molecules.
Describe/illustrate the processes (dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis) that build and break apart macromolecules.
Dehydration Synthesis(condensation reaction):
As subunits of macromolecules are joined together(built)water molecules are removed. It takes energy to build macromolecules.(by foods we eat)

Organic macromolecules are broken down. Each time a covalent bond between single subunits in the chain is broken the equivalent of water is added. The breakdown of macromolecules releases energy that was stored. Hydrolysis energy-storage molecules is how the body obtains much of its energy.
What is a macromolecule?
Macromolecules are large molecules.
They consis of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Macromolecules are subunits of molecules.
Know the subunits that make up the following types of macromolecules: proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids.
subunits: amino acids (strings)

Nucleic Acids: (DNA, RNA)
subunits: nucleotides

Lipids: (fats)
subunits: triglycerides (glycerol+3 fatty acids), phopholipids(glycerol+2 fatty acids), and steroids(4 fused carbons).

Carbohydrates: (sugars)
Polysaccharide = monosaccharides
Glycogen = glucose
Starch = glucose
Cellulose = glucose
oligosaccharides = monosaccharides
Carbohydrates: Define monosaccharide. what is the main function of monosaccharides in the human body?
Monosaccharide("one sugar") a macromolecule, is the simplest form of sugar. Made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. (1-2-1). There are many types of simple sugars. The main one in our bodies is Glucose. Other important sugars in our bodies are fructose, ribose, and deoxyribose.
Monosaccharides are a very important source of energy for cells. Ribose and deoxyribose are components of nucleotide molecules.
Give an example of a monosaccharide and a disaccharide.
Monosachharide: Glucose
Disaccharide: table sugar or sucrose
Define Oligosaccharide. What is its main function in the human body?
Oligosaccharides are compound carbohydrates. They consist of short strings of monosaccharides linked together by dehydration synthesis. Table sugar is an Oligosaccharide = fructose + glucose. Some oligosaccharides are covalently bonded to certain cell-membrane proteins called glycoproteins. These link adjacent cells together and cell to cell recognition and communication.
Define polysaccharides. What is its main function in the human body? What are the 3 types? Compare and contrast the functions of each.
Polysaccharides (poly=many)"store energy", these are complex carbohydrates. 1000's of monosaccharides linked together by dehydration synthesis. Energy is stored in the bonds of these molecules.

There are three types of glucose monosaccharides:
1-Glycogen: made up of glucose mono sac and stored energy in liver and muscles of animals.
Plants store energy in the form of:
2-Starch: made of glucose mono sac and stored energy.
3-Cellulose: (human body can't breakdown) Made of glucose mono sac and it is the structural support for plants.
Why do lipids,like oil, and do not mix with water?
Lipids are nonpolar at one end and neutral with no electrical charge at the other end which is what makes it insoluble in water.
List three types of lipids.
Triglycerides, Phospholipids, and Steroids.
List the functions of Triglycerides.
Triglycerides are composed of glycerol and 3 fatty acids. Triglycerides store energy in adipose (fat) tissues(2 times more energy than carbs but 2 times harder to burn)which are an important for our bodies. located in the fatty acid tails between carbon and hydrogen bonds. There are 2 types of fat:
Saturated and unsaturated fats
What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?
Saturated and unsaturated fats are triglycerides.
Saturated fats have 2 hydrogen atoms for each carbon in their tails. Since the tails are straight it allows them to pack closely together which makes it solid. Like butter, bacon grease.

Unsaturated fats(oils) have fewer than 2 hydrogen atoms on 1 or more carbon in the the tails. The consist of glycerol and 2 fatty acid tails.Double bonds form between carbons making the tail kink and not letting fats get close together causing the oil to be liquid, such as olive oil.
What are the functions of phospholipids?
Phospholipids are an important component of all our cells. They are a modified form of lipids. They are the primary structure of cell membranes. Composed of 4 fused carbon rings. Phospholipids regulates cells and body function. The phospholipid has the special quality of one end of the molecule is polar(soluble in water) and the other is neutral(insoluble in water).
What are the function of steroids?
Steroids are considered lipids because they are insoluble in water but do not look like lipids. One steroid is cholesterol. Cholesterol is a normal and essential structural component of animal cell membranes and also several important hormones, estrogen and testosterone.
What are some functions of proteins?
Proteins are long strings of amino acids linked together through by dehydration synthesis. Depending on the structure of amino acids (neutral, negative or positive charge)affects the function and shape of the proteins. Our body can make 11 of the amino acids necessary, the other 9 we have to consume with foods.
other functions:
structural support, muscle contraction, hormones, parts of cell membrane, antibodies, enzymes.
Describe the four successive levels of protein structure.
1) Primary structure. Amino acids come together at top and line up.
2) Secondary structure. Amino acids begin to coil and fold up stabilized by hydrogen bonds.
3) Tertiary structure. How the overall protein twists and folds to form a three-dimnensional shape.
4) Quaternary structure. 2 or more polypeptides (protein) chains bonded together.
What is meant by the term denature?
Permanent unraveling of protein strands can happen because of temperature change, acid rains, or aging of proteins.
Describe the function of enzymes and how they accomplish their function.
Enzymes are proteins not affected by chemical reaction. They can help build substances and helps breakdown foods. Serves as a Catalyst where it speeds up the chemical reaction of other molecules without being affected.(pacman) Made up of HO & H chemical reaction & enzyme.
Enzymes breakdown chemical bonds in glucose monosaccharides.
What environmental factors affect enzyme activity?
The physical environment inside a cell like the temperature, pH, and the concentrations of certain ions. Any change in homeostasis can affect the shapes and biological activities of different enzymes.
Describe the function of Nucleic acids.
These macromolecules are the DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid). Contains the genetic material in all living things, directs everything the cell does.
DNA contains instructions for making RNA. RNA contains instructions for making proteins. Proteins direct most of life's processes.
DNA and RNA are made up of subunits called Nucleotides.