Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/53

Click to flip

53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a pure substance composed of only one type of atom?
An Element
What is a combination of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds?
A Molecule
The smallest living entity.
The Cell
Draw the Living Matter Totem Pole.
Cell→Tissues→Organs→Organ Systems→Organism
What are the 4 Basic Types of Tissues?
Epithelial Tissue, Connective Tissue, Muscle Tissue, and Nervous Tissue
Two or more types of tissue organized to perform one or more particular functions aimed primarily towards maintaining homeostasis.
Organs
What is the main function of the skeletal system?
To support and protect
What does the Muscular System consist of?
Smooth, Skeleton, and Cardiac Muscle
Approximately 50% of our body is what kind of muscle tissue?
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
What is the integumentary system?
The skin
What does the nervous system consist of?
The brain and spinal cord, the central control centers, and bundles of long, wire-like cells called nerves.
The cardiovascular system consists of what?
The heart, blood vessels, lymphatics, and blood.
What makes up the respiratory system?
A series of tubes that lead from the mouth and nose into a highly branched network of increasingly smaller tubes that form small dead end air sacs in the substance of the lungs.
What makes up the digestive system?
The mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus.
What are the organs of the Urinary System?
Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder, and Urethra.
The glands and the hypothalamus that create hormonal stability are found in what organ system?
The Endocrine System
The thalamus and the lymphatics that enhance immunity are found in what organ system?
The Lymphatic System
How many different types of atoms are there?
109
How many atoms are found in the human body?
26
All Organic Molecules contain what element?
Carbon
Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen, make...
Carbohydrates
NTK...make up only 1 to 3% of the body but cells depend on them for energy
Carbon, Hydrogen, and small amounts of Oxygen make...
Lipids (fats)
NTK... these are insoluble in water
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen make...
Proteins
NTK... most abundant and diverse
Molecules that do NOT contain Carbon are...
Inorganic Molecules
The processes in which chemical bonds are broken, formed, or rearranged.
Chemical Reactions
Decomposition Reactions are...
Chemical bonds within a larger reactant are broken down to produce two or more smaller substances. (Big→Small)
Synthesis Reations are...
new chemical bonds are created to join together two or more atoms or small molecules into a single larger molecule. (Reverse of Decomposition)
Exchange Reactions are...
Bonds are both broken and made as parts of the reactants are shuffled areound to form nesw products (Switch)
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions...
may involve decomposition, synthesis, or exchange reactions, and result in the change in the energy content of the reacting molecules. ( donating and accepting)
What 3 structural features do all cells have in common?
A cell or plasma membrane, a nucleaus that serves as the control or command center of the cell, and the cytoplasm which is the fluid of the cell.
What are the four general functions of the Cell Membrane?
Mechanical Barrier, Selective Gate Keeper, Chemical Receptor Sites,and Identify self from non self for immune function
Characteristics of DNA...
Contains the instructions for assembling all structural and functional proteins of the cell,duplicates before cell division.
The fluid that contains the organelles of the cell...
The cytoplasm
The gel-like mass containing enzymes, ribosomes, transport vesicles, and various filaments and microtubules is the what?
Cytosol
Define the Endoplasmic Reticulum.
fluid-filled membranous system distributed extensively throughout the cytosol that functions primarily as a protein manufacturer.
Smooth E.R.=
a meshwork of tiny interconnected tubules
Rough E.R=
projects outward from the smooth ER as stacks of relatively flattened sacs
Function of Enzymes
help make chemical reactions happen faster
Where do you find most of the peroxisomes? and what do they do?
The kidneys and liver. house several powerful oxidative enzymes and contain most of the cell's catalase
Golgi Complex=
The post office.... modify, package, and distribute proteins.
Lysosomes=
Recycling center...break down old, damaged, opr dead cell parts or extracellular matierials that have been engulfed by the cell
Mitochondria=
Power plants..extract energy from the nutrients in food and transform it into a usable form to energize cellular activities.
Small, hairlike structures on the cell that moves the material on the cell surface forward.
Cilia
Single, long, whiplike appendage used to move the cell through it's environment...
Flagella
Microtubules=
help the cell maintain it's shape...also (1) transports secretory vesicles from one region of the cell to another (2) movement of specicialized cell projections, such as cilia and flagella; and (3) distribution of chromosomes during cell division through formation a mitotic spindle
Molecular Movement=
all molecules or ions are in continuous random motion as a result of heat (thermal) energy
Passive Movements=
diffusion along concentration gradients (high to low concentration)
Osmosis=
movement of water molecules from an area of high concentration of water molecules to an area of low concentration of WATER molecules
Active movements=
movements of molecules across cell membranes that require the cells to expend energy
Carrier Mediated Transport=
Valves carry things into the cell.. (require special carrier proteins int he membrane to transport small water soluble molecules into or out of the cell
Vesicular Transport=
Endocytosis ( vesicles carry into the cell) Exocytosis (vesicles carry out of the cell)
Main points of glycolysis=
The set of reactions that convert glucose molecules into pyruvate molecules.
☼ Occurs within the cytosol of the cell
☼Can occur without the presence of oxygen-anaerobic energy production
☼Produces 2 ATP molecules per glucose molecule
☼The glycolytic pathway has a dual role. It degrades glucose to produce ATP and it provides building blocks for the cell.
☼1 ATP moves one muscle fiber
☼There are anywhere from 100,000 to a million muscle fibers in the bicep alone
Energy production cycle in the mitochondria (Tricarboxylic acid cycle or Kreb's cycle or Citric Acid Cycle)
☼This process takes place in the mitochondria of the cell
☼Requires oxygen to proceed-aerobic energy production
☼More efficient-produces 36 ATP molecules per glucose molecule
☼IT also serves as a source of building blocks for biosynthesis