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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cerebral cortex
intricate concerning of interconnected neural cells that forms a thin surface layer on the cerebal hemisphere.
-ultimate control and info processing center
glial cells
gule cells that guide neural connections, provide nutrients, insulate myelin, and mop up ions and neurotransmitters
frontal lobes
-part of cerebral cortex
-behindn forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and making plans and judgments
-in cerebral cortex
parietal lobes
at the top and to the read; receives sensory input for touch and body position
-mathematical and spatial reasoning
-in cerebral cortex
occipital lobes
sides of the head, above the ears; includes the visual areas, receive visua info from the opposite visual field
-in cerebral cortex
temporal lobes
includes auditory areas, receives auditory info from the opposte ear
-in cerebral cortex
motor cortex
the the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movement
-when stimlate left hemisphere, moves right part of body
-in cerebral cortex
sensory cortex
at the front of the parietal loves that registersr and processes body touch and moevement sensations
-more sensitive the region of the body, the larger the are of the sensory cortex deovted to it
-in cerebral cortex
association areas
involved in higher mental functions: learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
-interpret, integrate, and act on info processed by the senosry areas
-in cerebral cortex
aphasia
impairment of language, caused b lef hemisphere damage to Broca's area (impairing speech) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding)
boca's area
controls language expression- and area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
Wernicke's area
controls language reeption- a brani area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in left temporal lobe
angular gyrus
thir brain that receives the visual info from the visual area and recodes it into the auditory form (reading aloud)
pasticity
the brain's cacity for modificaiton as evident in brain reorganization following damage and in experiments on the effects of the experience on brain development
-more plastic when young children
corpus callosum
large, wide band of neural fibers that connects 2 brain hemispheres and carries messages between them
split brain
condition where the hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (corpus collosum) between them
left hemisphere
interpreter-constructs theories to explian behavior
right hemisphere
quick, intuitive responses- more expressive side
lateralization
hemispheric specialization
left hand
among those w/ reading diabilites, allergies, migrain headaches
nervous system
body's electrochemical communication network, consisting of nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system
CNS
brain and spinal cord
-somatic- controls voluntary mvmnt of skeletal muscles
peripheral nervous system
sensoy and motor neurons (sense receptors, muscles, glands and hat connect the CNS to rest of the body)
-autonomic- controls self regulated action
-sympatheitc- arousing
-parasympathetic- calming
nerves
neural cables containing axons. part of peripheral nervous system; connects CNs w/ muscles, glands, sense organs
sensory neurons
carry incoming info from sense receptors to CNS
motor neurons
carry outgoing infrom from CNS to muscles and glands
interneurons
CNS nerons internally communicate and intervene between sensory inputs and motor outputs
somatic nervous system
PNS- enables voluntary control of skeletal muscles
autonomic nervous system
controls glands and muscles of internal orgas. operates on own (heartbeat, digestion, glandular activity
sympathetic nervous system
arouses (dialates pupils, accelerates heartbeat, inhibits digestion, stimulates glucose relase by liver, stimulates secretion of epinephrine, norepinephrine, stimulate male ejaculation
parasympathetic nervous system
calms body conserving energy (contracts pupils, slows heart beat, stimulates digestion, stimulates gallbladder, contracts bladder, allows blood flow to sex organs)
reflexes
automatic responses to stimuli
-info travels to and from body by spinal cord
neural networks
interconnected neural cells. w/ experience networks learn, as feedback stregthens of inhibits connections that produce results
-piano playing
lesion
tissue destruction either naturally or experimentally caused
titchener
experimental psychologist and proponent of study of consciousness
EEG electroencephalogram
amplified recording of the waves of elecrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface- measured by electrodes
-filters out brain activity unrelated to stimulus
PET scan- positrom emission tomography scan
depicts brain activity, detects where a rediocative form of glucose goes with the brain performs a given task
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
ses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinuish among different types of soft tissue: allows see different structures w/ in brain
fMRI
reveals blood flow and brain activity by comparing uccessive MRI scans- BRAIN FUNCTION
BRAINSTEM
oldest and innermost region beins where spinal cod swells as it enters the skull. responsible for automatic survival functions
medulla
base of brainstem- controls hearbeat and breathing
pons
help coordinate movement; above medulla
reticular formation
inside brainstem, between ears. nerve networks conrols arousal- extends from spinal cord to thalamus
-filters incoming stimuli and relays info to other areas of brain
-arousal w/ cat experiment
the thalamus
top of brainstem=brain's sensory switchboard
-receives info from all senses except smell and routes it to he brain regions that deal w/ seeing, hearing, tastking, and ouching
-directs to medulla and cerebellum
cerebellum
the little brain- attached to rear of brainstem; processes sensory input and coordinates movement output and balance
-nonverbal learning and memory + helps judge ime, modulate emotions, discriminate sounds and textures
the limbic system
emotiions and basic movement
the amygdala
2 lima bean sixed neural clusters that influence aggression and fear and processing of emotional memories
-limbic system
hypothalamus
below thalamus: performs bodily maintenance duties (hunger, body temp, sexual behavior
-monitors blood chemistry-helps govern endocrine system via pituitary gland
-likned to emotion-reward system
-limbic system
reward defieciency syndrom
genetically disposed deficiency in the natural brain stystems for pleasure and well-being that leads people to crave whatver provides the missing pleasure or relives negative feelings
hippocampus
ransfers info from short term to long term memory
-limbic system
thalamus
post office of sense- directs sensations except smell
-limbic system
pituitary gland
bioilogical clocks, anual rhythms, perceives sealson changes
basil ganglia
posture, locomotion, motor coordination
corpus callosum
divides 2 sides of brain- transfers info across hemispheres
endocrine system
body's slow chemical communication system' set of glands that secrete hormones into bloodstream
hormones
chemical messengers that are produced in 1 tissue and affect another.
-when act on brain influence interest sex, food, aggression
adrenal glands
located above kidnes, secretes epinephrine and norepinephrin help arous body in times of stress- feelings linger a while
epinephrin
adrenaline
norepinephrine
noradrenaline
pituitary gland
most influential gland- located in core of brain, endocrine system, controlled by hypothalamus
-release hormones influence growth, secretions influence release of hormones by endocrin glands
feedback system
brain-pituitary gland-other glands-hormones- brain
-nervous system directing endocrine system, which affects nervous system
hthyroid gland
affects metablism
regulates grouwth and glands (parathyroid)
parathyroid
relates levels of calcium
pancreas
blood sugar levels through secretion of insulin
ovary
female sex hormone estrogen and progesterone
humatrope
growth hormone