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108 Cards in this Set

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biochemistry
the chemistry of the body's structures and functions
chemistry
the branch of natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances, their properties, and reactions
energy
the ability of chemical systems to do work or carry out change
matter
material that has mass and occupies space
heat
a form of energy
organic chemistry
the field of chemistry that studies matter composed of carbon
carbon
an element found in all living things
atom
the smallest portion of an element that still retains its properties
subatomic particles
the parts of an atom - proton, neutron, electron
element
a substance composed of atoms having identical numbers of subatomic parts that cannot be broken down into simpler substance by normal chemical means
Periodic table
a chart of all known elements arranged according to chemical properties
# of naturally occuring elements
92
Russian scientist who developed Periodic Table
Dmitti Mendeleev
atomic structure
the structure of atoms composing each element consisting of an atomic nucleus and atomic orbitals
atomic nucleus
a core of dense material providing an element with its mass and physical properties
atomic shells - orbits
the regions around the nucleus where electrons are located
proton
a positively charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus
atomic number
the number of protons in an atom
atomic mass
the sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus
isotope
a variation of an elemnet having the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons
radioactive
describes a substance that gives off energy due to the decay of its unstable atoms
nuclear decay
the results of the break down of an isotopes nucleus
electron
a negatively charged particle that orbits the nucleus
ion
an element that has gained or lost and electron
cation
a positively charged ion
anion
a negatively charged ion
chemical bond
the way atoms are attached to each other
pure molecule
identical elements bonded together
compound
molecules of two or more different elements bonded together
ionic bond
a bond between two electrically charged elements - involves the gain or loss of an electron
biochemicals
organic molecules produced by the chemical reactions of living organisms
covalent bond
a bond between two elements sharing electrons
hydrogen bond
a temporary weak bond involving hydrogen as with water
adhesiveness
a glue-like property,as with water
cohesiveness
a substance's tendancy to stick to itself
structural molecules
molecules that compose body parts
hydroxyl ions
negatively charged oxygen particles bonded to hydrogen
pH
the measure of hydrogen ion concentration in water
acid
water containing large amounts of hydrogen ions
base
water with a low concentration of hydrogen ions
pH scale
a scale measuring the concentration of hydrogen ions
electrolytes
ions capable of of conducting electricity in water
neutral
neither acidic or base
dissociate
break-down of molecules in a compound into simpler molecules, atoms, or ions
buffer
molecules that act either hydrogen ion acceptors or donors
lipid or fat
simple molecules that provide the body with chemical signals, insulation, protective padding, and stored energy
carbohydrates
compound molecules that provide the body with energy
peptides
linear polymars of amino acids
nucleic acids
molecules involved in converting food energy to energy and an essential component of genetic material
water soluble
able to dissolve in water
polar
having a stonger negative or positive charge concentrated on one side or region
monomer
the simplest form of a biochemical
polymer
a complex biochemical
fat soluble
able to dissolve in fat
glyceride
the most abundant lipid in the body
sterol
complex lipids composed of carbon rings
monosaccharide
a simple sugar consisting of a single sugar molecule
disaccharide
two covalently bonded monosaccharides
polysaccharide
a chain of monosaccharides
oligosaccharide
a polysaccharide consisting of 3 to 10 monosaccharides
Terpenoids
short chain fatty acids that help fight disease
Include bioactive molecules called vitamins
Fat-soluble vitamins
A,D,E,& K – are stored in the body’s fat deposits and can build up to toxic levels
Water-soluble vitamins
B & C – are lost easily in sweat and urine
Peptides or proteins
Made of amino acids
There are about 20 amino acids that make up human proteins
functional proteins
proteins that carry out functions that run the body
structural proteins
proteins that help build body structures
Peptide bond
a bond between amino acids
Polypeptide
short change of amino acid
Three important nucleic acids:
RNA – DNA – ATP
RNA – DNA – ATP
RNA
ribonucleic acid
DNA
a nucleic acid -deoxyribonucleic acid - contains the genetic information
ATP
a nucleic acid - the most common energy transfer molecule
Water
make up 60% - 75% of body
Essential to life because:
1. It is a solvent – capable of dissolving materials
2. It is a lubricant – prevents friction
3. It changes temperature slowly – must absorb/lose a great deal of heat to change temperature
plasma
water in blood vessels
lymph
water in lymph vessels
synovial fluid
water found in joints
cerebrospinal fluid
water found in brain and spinal cord
aqueous humor
water found within the eye
intracellular fluid
fluid found inside the cells
extracellular fluid
found outside the cells
Glucose + oxygen → CO2 + H2O + ATP + heat
Cellular respiration - necessary for the body to function properly
Homeostasis
a state of good health - actually a natural tendency for the human body to maintain physiological and psychological stability
malnutrition
– the condition resulting from a diet lacking a balanced molecular composition
undernutrition
the condition due to a diet lacking sufficient molecules
craving
– the powerful and often uncontrollable desire for a substance
glycemic index
– a measurement indicating the amount of glucose available in a particular food
“carbo loading”
– eating large amounts of glucose before an endurance event to maintain adequate glucose levels during activity
aging
– the gradual deterioration of a material or object
senescense
the aging process in organisms
free radical
– aggressive chemicals that readily react with biochemicals (pollution such as ozone contain many free radicals)
antioxidants
– chemicals that protect the body by oxidizing before oxidizing agents can hurt the body – research says these help reduce chemical damage (broccoli, cabbage, garlic, red grapes, soybeans, & tomatoes are high in antioxidants)
solution
a mixture in which one or more substances are uniformly distributed in another substance
solute
the substance dissolved in the solution
solvent
the substance in which the solute is dissolved
saturated solution
a solution in which NO MORE solute can dissolve
acid
a substance that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions in water (H+)

0 to 7 on pH scale
base
a substance that increases the concentration of hydroxyl ions in water (OH-)

7 to 14 on pH scale
dissociation of water
breaking a part of a water molecule into 2 ions of opposite charges
neutral
a substance in which the hydrogen ions (H+) equals the number of hydroxyl (OH-) ions
buffer
a chemical substance that neutralizes small amounts of acids and bases
enzyme
a catalyst - helps to speed up chemical reactions
6.8
pH of intracellular fluid
7.35 - 7.45
pH of blood
trace elements
elements needed by the body in small amounts
ATP
the most common energy transfer molecule
monosaccharides
make up carbohydrates
fatty acids and glycerol
make up fats/lipids
amino acids
make up proteins