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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Myelin Sheath
White fatty covering found on some axons
Individual cells that are the smallest units of the nervous system
Short fibers that branch out from the cell body and pick up incoming messages
Single long fiber extending from the cellbody; it carries outgoing messages
Glial Cells (glia)
Cells that form the myelinated sheath; they insulate and support neurons by holding them together, removing waste products, and preventing
cell nucleus
cell nucleus contains a complete set of chromosomes and genes;
Terminal buttons
structure at the end of an axon terminal branch
cell body
cell body is made up of nucleus, cytoplasm and cell membrane
sensory (afferent) neurons
neurons that carry messages from sense organs to the spinal cord or brain
motor (or efferent) neurons
neurons that carry messages from the spinal cord or brain to the muscles and glands
interneurons (or associated neurons)
Neurons that carry messages from one neuron to another
area composed of the axon terminal of one neuron, the synaptic space, and the dendrite or cell body of the next neuron
synaptic vesicles
Tiny sacs in a terminal button that release chemicals into the synapse
Receptor sites
A location on a receptor neuron into which a specific neurotransmitter fits like a key into a lock
frontal lobe
coordinates messages from the other cerebral lobes; involved in complex problem-solving tasks
primary motor cortex
part of the frontal lobe; sends messages to muscles and glands; key role in voluntary movement
central fissure
separates the primary somatosensory cortex from the primary motor cortex
primary somatosensory cortex
registers sensory messages from the entire body
parietal lobe
reiews sensory information from sense receptors all over the body (in the skin, muscles, joints, organs, taste buds); also involved in spatial abilities
temporal lobe
involved in complex visual tasks; balance; regulates emotions; strong role in understanding language
occipital lobe
recieves and processes visual information
neural plasticity
the ability of the brain to change in response to experience
chemicals released by the synaptic vesicles that travel across the synaptic space and affect adjacent neurons
Acetylcholine (ACh)
distributed widely throughout the central nervous system, where it is involved in arousal, attention, memory, motivation, and movement. involved in muscle action trhrough presence at neuromuscular junction (specialized type of synapse where neurons connect to muscle cells). Degeneration of neurons that produce ACh have been linked to Alzheimer's disease. too much can lead to spasms and tremors; too little to paralysis or torpor
involved in a wide variety of behaviors and emotions, including pleasure. implicated in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease
involved in the regulation of sleep, dreaming, mood, eating, pain, and aggressive behavior. Implicated in depression
affects arousal, wakefulness, learning, memory, and mood. produced in the adrenal gland
involved in the inhibition of pain. released during strenuous exercise. may be responsible for "runner's high"
involved in long-term memory and the perception of pain
GABA/Gamm aminobutyric acid
a largely inhibitory neurotransmitter distributed widely throughout the central nervous system. implicated in sleep and eating disorders. low levels of GABA have also been linked to extreme anxiety
Peripheral Nervous System
Division of the Nervous System that connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body
reticular formation
network of neurons in the hindbrain, midbrain, and part of the forebrain whose primary function is to alert and arouse the higher parts of the brain
pituitary gland
gland located on the underside; it produces the largest number of the body's hormones
adrenal gland
two endocrine glands located just above the kidneys
Central Nervous System
Division of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord
Regulates reflexes and balance... coordinates movement
forebrain region that relays and translates incoming messages from sense recptors, except those from smell. major sensory relay center. regulates higher brain centers and peripheral nervous system
emotion and motivation. stress and reactions
limbic system
Ring of structures that play a role in learning emotional behavior
cerebral cortex
The outer surface of the two cerebral hemispheres that regulates most complex behavior
Part of the limbic system: governs emotions related to self-perservation
corpus callosum
permits the exchange of information between the two hemispheres
broca's area
involved in the production of speech. Damage to this region afects the ability to talk, but understanding spoken or written language is hardly affected
Wernicke's area
involved in our understanding of spoken or written language. damage to this region affecs comprehension of language, but speech is hardly affected
Chemical substances released by the endocrine glands; they help regulate bodily activities
Chemical substances released by the endocrine glands; they help regulate bodily activities
four tiny glands embedded in the thyroid; they secrete parathormone. helps balance calcium levels--> results in excitatory levels
pineal gland
a gland located roughly in the center of the brain that appears to regulate activity levels ovr the course of the day--> secretes melatonin which helps regulate sleeo-wake cycles
organ lying between the stomach and small intestine; it secretes insulin and glucagon to regulate blood-sugar levels
thyroid gland
endocrine gland located below the voice box; it produces the hormone thyroxin