Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Olmec Tribe
Gulf coast
Pawnee Tribe
Nebraska-Platte river
Southeast,North and South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Tennesse (Trail of Tears)
Southern Mexico, Yucatan-Build monuments and great cities
Peru, Chile
Mexico-Dominated northern Mexico originated in Aztlan somewhere in North or nothwest Mexico
Nez Perce
Idaho/Oregon, Pacific Northwest
Christopher Columbus
Italian but sailed for Spain-Sailed: Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria funded by Queen Isabella of Spain. Landed in San Salvador (mistook it for the Indies)-explored Cuba.
Hernan Cortes
Spanish conquistador - Led the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. Part of first phase of the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Sailed from Cuba to Mexico and conquered the Aztec empire in 1591, founded Vera Cruz.
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Spanish - Conquistador. 1500. Founded Santa Maria present day Panama. Frist permanent European settlement of the mainland of Americas. Crossed Isthmus of Panama to discover the Pacific Ocean.
Ferdinand Magellan
Sailed on a 3 year voyage around the world
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish conquistador. Expeditions from Panama to Peru. Conquested the Inca Empire, and established Lima, Peru
Hernando de Soto
Spanish conquistador. Part of conquest of Panama and Nicaragua, conquest of Peru with Pizarro. Largest expedition through Southeastern U.S. and Midwestern U.S. Traveled from FL to the Carolinas and on westward to the Mississippi River
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
Spanish conquistador-Governor of Mexican states. Marcos told him of Cibola -Visited Cibola present-day New Mexico Did the Coronado expedition traveled to north KS, West of Grand Canyon. Spent his money Misfortune Explorer
Used to oppress Native Americans by Spanish Conquistidors who were granted trusteeship over indigenous people.
Term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers whol brought much of the americas and Asis Pacific under Spanish colonia rule betwween the 15th and 17th centuries, starting with 1492 Bahamas by Columbus. Granted trusteeship over indigenous people, seized the land, increased taxes, and forced natives into slavery.
Document declared themselves to be Christians and by nature superior the unciviled heathens that they encountered. Indigenous people were then informed by the Requierimento that if they accepted Christianity they would become the Christians's slaves in exchange for the gift of salvation; if they did not accept the gospel of Christianity, they would still become slaves but that their plight would be much worse.
Black Legend
Described history actions of Spain and Spainards as bloodthirsty, cruel. The term came from author Julian in his 1914 book.
The Great Migration
Term used -Resulted from the persecution of the Puritans and exit from England.
Toleration Act
Freedom of religion in Baltimore to anyone professing to believe in Jesus Christ
Treaty of Tordesillas
Divided land between Spain and Portugal.
John Cabot
Italian Explorer - England funded expedition to reach Asia by sailing west across the north Atlantic. To be quicker than Columbus. Explored East Coast of North America
Da Gama
Sailed around Africa to India, opened frist all water trade route between Europe and Asia
First European to sight New York
Marco Polo
Italian Explorer - First to travel to china then called Cathay, visit the Great Khan and Mongol Empire, Kublain Khan, Grandson of Genghis Khan.
Men sailed from England from the Virginia company of London to establish the colony in the Chesapeake Bay. Ships Susan, Discovery and Godspeed. Captian John Smith led colony, five years, many died of diease and food shortage. John Rolfe had success with tobacco and married Pocahontas and friendship with John Smith.
William Bradford
First governor of the Puritan colony in Cape Cod
Roger Williams
Founded Rhode Island 1636
William Penn
Founded Pennsylvania for Quakers
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Puritans - Seek out and punish sin and sinners. Plymouth was founded by Pilgrams wanting to seperate from Church of England. The Mayflower Compact was the first governing doc of Plymouth colony. Drafted by the Pilgrams. Wanted people to agree to follow rules.
Mid Atlantic
Virginia, Maryland-rural agricultural economy of tobacco and cotton. Slaver-exchanged products with England. Ties to England kept strong by upper class.
North and South Carolinas and Georgia agricultural economy of rice, cotton, and tobacco. Slavery wealthy plantations dominated Charleston became major port-ties with England remained strong because trading continued.
Sugar Act
Great Britain taxed colonies on sugar, molasses, wine, cloth etc. 1764
Stamp Act
Required an official stamp on all documents 1765 John Adams said the "Pot is set to boil"
Tea Act
Passed in 1773 allowing the British East India tea company to sell tea to colonies w/ut paying taxes. Britain was attempting to bail out the almost bankrup company, but this angered colonists. Resulted in Boston Tea Party
Declaratory Act
Asserted British gov right to impose taxes.
Townsend Act
Duty tax search and seizure
Quartering Act
British soldiers were permitted to live in colonists homes for free.
Boston Massacre
Six colonists were shot in boston during a scuffle between colonists and British troops.
Trail of Tears
1838 goverment forced 15,000 Cherokee to leave Georgia for Oklahoma and they suffered at least 4000 casualties on the way.
Manifest Desiny
The belief that the United Stes had a divine mission to expand and spread democracy and freedom.
The Lousiana Purchase
The United States controlled the eastern bank of the Mississippi River, but the Spanish colony of Louisana controlled access to the river at New Orleans. In 1803, President thomas Jefferson sent ministers to France to inquire about purchasing New Orleans. spain had recently returned the colony to its original owner and Napoleon offered to sell the entire region for $15 million. The American quickly agreed, adding more than 300 million acres to the nation. The Louisiana Purchas was the single largest addition to the territory of the United States. The extent of the purchase was defined by the Adams-Onis Treaty with Spain in 1819 and subsequent agreements withGreat Britian in the 1840's.
The Annexation of Texas
In 1836, the colonists of Texas secred their independence from Mexico. The Republic of Texas looked to the United States for support and eventually sought to join the Union. In 1845, after a long debate in the United States congress, the bill to approve annexation of Texas was appved in December 1845.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
At the end of the Mexican War in 1848 the Unted States acquired the territory that now comprises New Mexico (1912), Arizona (1912), California(1850), and parts of colorado (1876) Utah(1996), and Nevada (1864). Mexico also formally acknowledged that Texas was part of the United States.
Gadsden Purchase
The Treaty of Guadalupe hidalgo was unclear about the precise border between the United States and Mexico. In order to acquire a direct route for future railroads, the United States purchased the southern strip that is now the southern border of Arizona and New Mexico from mexico in 1853. james gadsden represented the United states in the negotiations.
Russia had colonized the northwest coast of North America, reaching into re-day California in the early 19th Century. In 1867, the united States purchased Alaska for $7 million, largely because of the efforts of Secretary of State William Seward. Alaska became the 48th state in 1959.
In the 1890s the government of the Kingdom of Hawaii attempted to establish its power over the alrge agricultural concerns that dominated the economy. In 1893, these interests overthrew the reigning monarch., Queen Liliuokalani, and establised a republic. The United States initially refused to annex te islands, but President William McKinley supported annexation. Hawaii was added to the United States in 1898. It became the 50th state in 1959.
Maryland - George and Cecilius Calvert
English politician. Member of Pariament, Sec of State under Kind James 1. Create refuge for Catholics. Founder of Maryland in Spirit. Son was Cecilius Calvert.
Trade with Caribean
Land grant conflict with North and South and Georgia.
John Havney was killed dispute broke out in Walton county over farmers and land, because Walton War. N.C. issued grants for land that was in S.C.
Founded by George Fox member of the Society of Friends. Met is meetings and not churches, Puritan leaders considered them a threatto their boble commonwalth. Quakers were peaceful.
New Jersey
Part of new Netherland. Royal province until the Revolution. Quakers lived there.
General James Oglethorpe - English army officer. Chartered a colony now Georgia, where debtors could start a new life and Protestants could practice freely. founded Savannah
Headright system
Used in Virgina and Maryland - Every male head of household who came to the new world received a land grant of 50 acres. Additional 50 for every servant brought. Encouraged British colonization and indentured servitude.
Indentured servitude
Adult white persons - who were bound to labor for a period of years. Some left due to poverty or were kidnapped and convicts. 1st. Pay their way to America, 2nd. escape poverty of were kidnap, 3rd convicts, NewJersey had the most.
Cabeza de Vaca
Spanish explorer - Florida, Texas and Mexico.
Ponce de Leon
Spanish sailed with Columbuse on his 2nd voyage and discovered Florida, while looking for fountain of Youth.
Sir Francis Drake
Chosen by Queen Elizabeth to command voyage abound the world. Disrute Spain domenance of sailing. Landed on Pacific coast of North America.
Henry Hudson
Enlish - 1st to Sail up the Hudson River
Sir Walter Raleigh
Enlish - The man who laid his cloak over a mudpuddle for the queen
Jacques Cartier
French - Discoverer of Canada St. Lawrence River
Rene Robert Cavelier
French claimed Louisana for France
Samuel de Champlain
French founded Port Royal now Annapolis, in Nova Scotia, and Quebec.
Sieur de La Salle
France - claiming the entire Mississippi watershed
Amerigo Vespucci
Italian - The explorer after whom the america are named- beleived to reach new world before columbus - Sailed for Portugal
Giovanni da verazanno
Italian - Sailed for France - 1st to enter New York Bay, from Carolina to Nova Scotia explored the coast.
Henry the Navigator
Prince of Portugal opened schools for navigation for growth of Portugal empire.
Columbian Exchange
Interchange of native life-forms. Author Alfred Crosby title, was massive transformation in ecosystem due to exchangeof flora and diease between the old and new world.
French Colonies
Quebec, Mississippi Valley
Dutch colonies
New Amsterdam, New Holland