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92 Cards in this Set

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Describe the history of wine and vines as it pertains to the East Coast of the US
there were many wild vines when the norse explorers came (they called it vinland), however these indigenous grapes were unsuitable for wine.

settlers brought vinifera, but since it was from europe, it was susceptible to phylloxera!
Who was Dr. Konstantin Frank
hired by East Coast winery
shoed how vinifera could work in N. America
Describe the conditions of the West Coast of the US and how it pertained to wine history
spanish settlers
wine a big part of church
mission variety - not very high quality
What was a key impediment to wine culture in the US in the 1920s - 1933 and why?
prohibition

stopped quality and technological advances

took a while for demand to grow after prohibition ended.
Describe AVA
American Viticultural Area

defined by geographic, climatic, topographic boundaries

recent

no regulations on yields: grape varieties

AVA does NOT have to appear on label
Describe California's wine industry in the US
95% of the wine

range of quality

lots of investment and customer interest

consumers now wanting high quality

UC Davis University has contributed via research
Describe California's climate in general terms
Mediterranean

Fog and ocean influences

Spring frost can be a threat
Describe the soils of California in general terms
generally fertile

alluvial

rich loam

volcanic

granite
Describe the Viticulture techniques of California
lower density than EU

Irrigation common

Mechanical Harvesting, but Hand harvesting in quality vineyards

Many training systems

Organic viticulture

Phylloxera and Pierce's disease are threats
Describe the history and affects of Phylloxera in California
UC Davis developed a hybrid rootstock (AXR1).

Was originally resistant, but then became susceptible to a strain

1980's - 2nd wave

1990's - major replanted
How was Phylloxera beneficial to California?
they started planting according to the soil, proper density, etc.
What other disease is a threat to California and describe it?
Pierce's disease

glassy-winged sharpshooter

bacterial
What grapes are most susceptible to Pierce's disease?
Chardonnay

Pinot Noir
What is the cure for Pierce's disease?
There isn't one :(
What type of wine does California usually produce?
Modern

fruit forward, full-bodied wines

soft texture (late harvesting)
Whites of California
Chardonnay

Sauvignon Blanc

Chenin Blanc
Reds of California
Cabernet Sauvignon

Merlot

Malbec

Zinfandel

Pinot Noir

Syrah
Describe the wine and growing conditions of Lodi / Woodbridge AVA
highly productive (high yields)

warm, dry

northern valley between mountain ranges

Zinfandel! (adapts best to this heat)

everyday drinking
Describe the general climate of the Napa Valley AVA
warmer in the north

fog

valley floor extensively planted

known for cabernet sauvignon!
Name 4 subregions of the Napa Valley
Oakville AVA
Rutherford AVA
Howell Mountain AVA
Stag's Leap AVA
Describe the wines of Oakville AVA
concentrated fruit

middle of the valley

CS
Describe the wines of Rutherford AVA
distinct minerality

CS
What do Rutherford AVA and Oakville AVA have in common?
rich, deep soils

classic Cab Sauv

some of the most expensive land
Describe the wines and climate of Howell Mountain AVA
tannic

higher acid (from high altitude)

can be austere in youth (need age)

volcanic, shallow, infertile (leads to minerality)
Describe the wines and climate of Stag's Leap AVA
herbal notes

bright red, fruity wines

at best: iron fist in a velvet glove


valley floor, but wind in the afternoon

slower ripening
Describe the wines and climate of Carneros AVA
chardonnay
pinot noir
sparkling wine!

fog and wind sucked in from ocean (cools and dries moisture)

earlier ripening varieties

sometimes labelled carneros, sometimes napa
which is larger, Sonoma County AVA or Sonoma Valley AVA?
Sonoma County AVA - it covers the entire county, whereas Sonoma Valley AVA just covers best wines from higher elevations.
What type of wine is Sonoma Valley AVA known for?
Zinfandel
Name 3 Sonoma County AVA's
Sonoma Valley AVA

Russian River Valley AVA

Dry Creek AVA
Describe the wines and climate of the Russian River Valley AVA
Redwood trees and fog

Profound ocean influence

Zinfandel and Pinot Noir
Describe the wine of Dry Creek AVA
spicy, voluptuous Zinfandels
Describe the climate of Central Coast AVA
granite ridges running east and west

cold ocean current

lower temperatures (cooler summer)

Maritime climate
Memorize these positions
http://www.sonomawinegrape.org/ava_map.html
Name some AVA's in the Central Coast AVA region
Santa Barbara AVA
Santa Maria AVA
Santa Ynez AVA
What types of wines is the Central Coast known for and who has influenced this?
Top quality Pinot Noir

Chardonnay

The Rhone Rangers!
Describe the cuisine, food style, and ingredients of California
fusion
local ingredients
many cultures influenced

avocado, swordfish, shrimp, oranges
Where is Washington's center for grape growing?
Columbia Valley, Eastern WA
(east of Cascade Mtns)
Where is Washington's center for wine making?
Western Washington, around Seattle
Describe the climate of Western WA
wet
humid
west of mountains (creates a rain shadow)
marginal growing conditions
Describe the climate of Eastern WA
cold continental
east of Cascades
arid dessert summers
very cold winters
What do Western and Eastern WA have in common?
short growing seasons
Viticulture style of Washington
high cordon training
- vines face south for protection in winter
- cold air is low

sandy loam soil

wind machines, etc. protect against winter freeze

irrigation from columbia river

merlot (but it's sensitive to frost)

structure from extreme day / night temps
Why is sandy loam soil good for Washington?
inhospitable to phylloxera
Vinification style of Washington
modern
advanced technology

wide use of oak

grapes and juice transported far to winery - so use of sulphur is key
Wines of Washington and how they differ from California
Merlot
Cabernet Sauvignon
Syrah
Riesling
Chardonnay

bright fruit and crisp acidity (differing from Cali)
Name the largest AVA in Washington as well as some of the AVA's in it
Columbia Valley AVA

AVA's within it:
Yakima Valley
Walla Walla Valley
Red Mountain
Wahluke Slope
Horse Heaven Hills
Rattlesnake Hills
Columbia Gorge
What AVA is shared with Oregon?
Columbia Gorge AVA
What AVA covers the Coastal area of Washington?
Puget Sound AVA
Describe the size of production and level of quality of Oregon wines
small production, small growers

high quality

many individual grower sites
Describe the general climate of Oregon
cool maritime

west side of cascades
Describe the soil of Oregon
Nothing exceptionally fertile

Volcanic
Marine Fossils
Red-clay loam
Describe the Viticulture techniques of Oregon
Canopy management to increase sunlight

Cane pruning

Environmental consciousness (sustainable, organic, biodynamic). LIVE movement

long term vineyard contracts

better clone is key to quality
What are the vinification styles of Oregon?
many single varietal wines

burgundian techniques adopted

use of old AND new barrels
What is the flagship grape of Oregon?
Pinot Noir
What is the most planted grape of Oregon?
Pinot Gris
Name 3 additional whites grown in Oregon
chardonnay
riesling
gewurztraminer

(in addition to pinot gris)
What is the most important AVA of Oregon and where is it?
Willamette Valley

largest area

excellent reputation for Pinot Noir

Located in the foothills of the Cascade mountains
Name some sub-AVA's of Willamette Valley AVA
All AVAs:

Yamhill-Carleton
McMinnville
Dundee Hills
Ribbon Ridge
Eola-Amity Hills
Chehalem Mountains
Pacific Northwest food?
oysters
salmon
hazelnuts
mushrooms
black truffles
lamb
artisan cheeses
Name the 2 grape growing regions of Canada
Niagara Peninsula
Okanagan Valley
What is the organization that regulated wine in canada?
VQA = Vintners Quality Alliance

defines regional boundaries

guarantees grapes grown in canada
Describe the climate of the Niagara Peninsula
cold continental
humid in summer
winter freeze a threat
great lakes moderate
Describe the climate of the Okanagan Valley
cold continental
arid desert conditions
lake okanagan has moderating effect
What type of growing season do niagara and the okanagan share?
short growing season

(also, vintage variation)
What type of soil does the Niagara Peninsula have?
limestone
glacial till
What kind of soil does the Okanagan Valley have?
sand!
Describe the viticulture of the niagara peninsula
winter protection practices
cold resistant rootstocks
describe the viticulture of the okanagan valley
irrigation by lake okanagan
frost protection in early spring
What types of grape varieties is the Niagara known for?
riesling
cabernet franc

also, history of hybrids:
vidal
baco noir
(combat frost, winter)
what types of grape varieties is the Okanagan Valley known for?
pinot gris
pinot blanc
riesling
pinot noir
merlot
syrah
chardonnay
describe the history of wine in chile
spanish conquistadores brought vines
france had a greater influence on the industry
botanical nursery set up in 1830 (bank of cuttings before phylloxera)
phylloxera never hit chile! (also, cause it was isolated)
Describe the climate of chile
mediterranean
ocean breezes (pacific ocean to the west)
altitude influence specific sites (andes mountins in the east)
soil in chile?
sand
describe the viticulture of chile
irrigation from melted
ungrafted vines
lifecycle of vine opposite of N. America (harvest february to may)
What is the wine style and what types of wines does chile make?
style is in between old and new world

cabernet sauvignon
merlot
carmenere (late ripening red)
chardonnay
sauvignon blanc
Name 5 important regions of Chile
Aconcagua
Casablanca
Maipo
Rapel
Maule
Bio Bio
Where is Aconcagua and what type of wine does it produce?
most northerly region
hot, dry, interior
good red wines
What is the climate and wine style of Casablanca?
cool, wet (close to ocean)
some fog
crisp whites
pinot noir
What is the best known region of Chile and what type of wine does it produce?
Maipo
(south of santiago)
cabernet sauvignon and chardonnay are the most widely planted varieties
What are the subregions of Rapel and what type of wine does this area produce?
Cachapoal
Colchagua

Cabernet Sauvignon
Merlot
what regions are cooler and have excellent potential in chile?
maule
bio bio
Describe the wine industry in argentina
large producer (world's 5th biggest)

large consumers

many european influences

traditionally high yields of low quality wine

bulk wine for export

recent focus on high quality wine for exports

cheap labour, inexpensive wine
Describe the climate of argentina
warm continental
altitude moderates heat
low rainfall
soils in argentina?
sand
clay
alluvial
Describe the viticulture of Argentina
traditionally very high yields
best sites at high altitudes
irrigation channels (recently moved to drip irrigation from flood irrigation)
Vinification style of Argentina?
quality producers doing concentrated reds with some oak
crisp whites

previously:
bulk wine production perfected in 1960s and 1970s
traditionally production of light colored roses
Wines of argentina?
malbec*
cabernet sauvignon
bonarda (italian)
torrontes (aromatic white)
chardonnay
syrah
Describe the 3 main wine regions in Argentina
Mendoza
San Juan
Cafayate (Salta)
Wine style of Mendoza
concentrated reds

(largest production, foreign investment)
Who is 2nd in terms of production in argentina?
San Juan
type of wine from cafayate (northerly region in salta)
aromatic torrontes
Food and ingredients of argentina
fresh fruit and veggies
seafood
beef
organ meats
avocado
seafood, steak
beans
corn
squash
chilies