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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
reformers who sought to improve society formed utopias
communities based on a visionof a perfect society
Robert Owen
established New Harmony, Indiana, a village dedicated to cooperation rather than competition among its members
Second Great Awakening
Began revivals
Increased church membership
Inspired people to become involved in missionary work and social reform movements
Lyman Beecher
Connecticut minister and crusader against use of alcohol
frontier camp meetings with eloquent preachers, praying, singing, weeping, and shouting
drinking little or no alcohol
temperance movement
gathered momentum when American Society for the Promotion of Temeperance was formed
Crusaders used lectures, pamphlets, and revival-style rallies to warn people of the dangers of liquor
Many states passed laws to ban the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages, but they were resented and later repealed
Horace Mann
Leader of educational reform
Lawyer who became head of the Massachusetts board of education
During his term, the school year was lenghtened to sixmonths, made improvements in school curriculum, doubled teachers' salaries, and developed better ways of training teachers.
Partly due his efforts, Massachusetts founded the nation's first state-supported normal school.
normal school
school for training high-school graduates as teachers
Three basic principles of education
schools should be free and supported by taxes
teachers should be trained
children should be required to attend school
Thomas Gallaudet
Developed a method of educating people who were hearing impaired
Opened Hartofrd School for the Deaf in Connecticut
Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe
Advanced cause of those who were visually impaired.
Developed books with large raised letters that people with sight impairments could "read" with their fingers.
Headed the Perkins Institute in Boston
Dorothea Dix
Revealed to the US how horribly mentally ill people were treated
George Catlin
Painted hundreds of pictures of Native American life in the West
John James Audubon
Portrayed birds of America
Stressed relationship between humans and nature as well as the importance of the individual conscience
Margaret Fuller
Leading Transcendentalist
Supported rights for women
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Leading Transcendentalist
In his poems and essasys, he urged people to listen to the inner voice of conscience and to break the bonds of prejudice
Henry David Thoreau
Leading Transcendentalist
Put his beliefs into practice through civil disobidience
1846- went to jail rather than pay a tax to support the Mexican War
civil disobedience
refusing to obey laws he thought were unjust
James Fenimore Cooper
One of the most popular authors in 1800s
Wrote of the clash between the values of the white settlers on the frontier and those of Native Americans
Washington Irving
One of the most popular authors in 1800s
Wrote tales set in the Hudson River valley of New York
Nathaniel Hawthorne
Descendant of early Massachusetts colonists
Wrote of moral struggles in Puritan New England
Herman Melville
Used his experiences at sea and wrote Moby Dick, an epic tale of a whaling captain's search for revenge
Edgar Allan Poe
Explored world of the supernatural
Perfected modern detective story
Had been called "father of the modern short story"
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Wrote narrative poems
Walt Whitman
Captured American impuluse for self-improvement and equality
Wrote of a growing, confident people
Emily Dickinson
Wrote simple, deeply personal poems
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Wrote most successful best-sell of the mid-1800s, Uncle Tom's Cabin
Novel explores injustice of slaver- an issue that took on new urgency during the age of reform
members of the growing band of reformers who worked to abolish slavery
Benjamin Lundy
Founded newspaper in 1815 to spread abolitionist message
American Colonization Society
Formed in 1817 by a group of white Virginians
Worked to free enslaved workers gradually by buying them from slaveholders and sending them abroad to start new lives
Did not halt growth of slavery
Problems with Resettling the African Americans
Number of enslaved people continued to increase at a steady pace
American Colonization Society could ony resettle a small number of African Americans
Most African Americans did not want to go to Africa
William Lloyd Garrison
Stimulated growth of antislavery movement
Founded his own newspaper, The Liberator
First white abolitionist to call for the "immediate and complete emancipation [freeing]" of enslaved people
Attracted enough followers to start the New England Antislavery Society in 1832 and American Antislavery Society a year later
Sarah Grimke and Angelina Grimke
First women who spoke out publicly against slavery
Born in South Carolina to a wealthy slaveholding family
Wrote and lectured against slavery
Early supporters of women's rights
Fighting slavery [African Americans]
Took active part in organizing and directing the American Antislavery Society
Subscribed in large numbers to William Lloyd Garrison's The Liberator.
Founded many newspapers that promoted abolition
David Walker
African American whom published an impassioned argument agaisnt slavery, challenging African Americans to rebel and overthrow slavery by force
Frederick Douglass
Most widely known African American abolitionist
Escaped from slavery in Maryland and joined Massachusetts Antislavery Society
Traveled widely to address abolitionist meetings, regardless of being caught
Won admiration as a powerful and influential speaker and writer
Edited an antislavery newspaper called North Star
Insisted that African Americans recieve not just their freedom but full equality with whites as well
Sojourner Truth
Once known as Isabella Baumfree or "Belle"
When New York banned slavery, she fled and gave herself a new name, "Sojourner Truth"
Worked in movements for abolitionism and women's rights
Underground Railroad
Some abolitionists risked prison and death by helping enslaved people escape
Network of escape routes out of the South came to be known as the Underground Railroad
Passengers on this "railroad" often traveled through the night, often on foot, but later on wagons
During the day, passengers rested at attics, barns, church basements, anywhere they could hide
African Americans on railroad hoped to settle in a free state in the North or move on in Canada
Only helped a tiny fraction of enslaved population
Most who used it came from border states
Gave hope to those who suffered in slavery
Provided abolitionists with a way to help some enslaved people to freedom
Harriet Tubman
Escaped slavery to become the most famous conductor on the Underground Railroad
Made many dangerous trips into South and guided hundreds of enslaved people to freedom
Slaveholders offered a large reward for Tubman's capture of death, but she was never captured and lived to an old age
Why Southerners opposed abolitionism
Believed it threatened South's way of life, which depended on enslaved labor
Claimed that slavery was essential to economic progress and prosperity in the South
Argued that they treated enslaved people well, and that for AFrican Americans slavery was preferable to facotry work in the North
Why Northeners opposed abolitionism
Saw antislavery movement as a threat to the nation's social order.
Claimed that if the enslaved African Americans were freed, they could never blend into American society
Worried that freed slaves would flood the North and take jobs away from whites by agreeing to work for lower pay
People who work for women's rights
Lucretia Mott
Gave lectures in Philadelphia calling for temperance, peace, workers' rights, and abolition
Helped fugitive slaves and organized Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society
Met Elizabeth Cady Stanton and joined forces
Organized first women's rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York
Seneca Falls Convention
Issued Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions modeled on Declaration of Independence
Listed women's grievances against men
Called for an end to all laws that discriminated against women
Most convroversial issue at this convention concerned suffrage
Susan B. Anothony
Daughter of a Quaker abolitionist in rural New York
Worked for women's rights, temperance, and the reform of New York property and divorce laws
Called for equal pay for women, college training for girls and coeducation
Organized first women's temperance association, Daughters of Temperance
Led women's movement with Elizabeth Cady Stanton
teaching of boys and girls together
Emma Willard
Educated herself in subjects considered suitable only for boys
Established Troy Female Semiary in upstate New York
Mary Lyon
Estabished Mount Holyoke Female Seminary
Modeled its curriculum based on that of nearby Amherst College
Elizabeth Blackwell
Graduated at head of her class in Geneva College
Went on to become the first woman to recieve a medical degree
Founded New York Infirmary for Women and Children
Lucy STone
Oberlin College graduage
Became influential lecturer of abolitionism and women's rights
Maria Mitchell
Taught herself astronomy
Gained world renown when she discovered a comet
Became a professor of astronomy at Vassar College
First woman elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
Sarah Hale
Editor of a popular magazine called Godey's Lady's Book
Influenced thousands of American women
Mixed articles on fashions and other traditional female subjects with a call for women to stand up for their rights