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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1
Mohammed
570-632
2
Isaac Newton
1643-1727
3
Jesus of Nazareth
8BCE - 29CE
4
Siddhartha Gautama Buddha
563BCE - 483BCE
5
Confucius
551BCE - 479BCE
6
St Paul the Apostle
10-67
7
Cai Lun
50-121
8
Johannes Gutenberg
1400-1468
9
Christopher Columbus
1451-1506
10
Albert Einstein
1879-1955
11
Louis Pasteur
1822-1895
12
Galileo Galilei
1564-1642

Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher closely associated with the scientific revolution. His achievements include the first systematic studies of uniformly accelerated motion, improvements to the telescope, a variety of astronomical observations, and support for Copernicanism. Galileo's experiment-based work was a significant break from the abstract approach of Aristotle. Galileo is often referred to as the "father of modern observational astronomy", as the "father of modern physics", and as the "father of science".
13
Aristotle
382BCE - 322BCE
14
Euclid
15
Moses
16
Charles Darwin
1809-1882
17
Qin Shi Huang
260BCE - 210BCE
(Emperor from 247BCE - 221BCE)
18
Augustus (Octavian)
63BCE - 14CE
19
Nicolaus Copernicus
1473-1543
20
Antoine Lavoisier
1743-1794
21
Constantine I
280-337
22
James Watt
1736-1819
23
Michael Faraday
1791-1867
24
James Clerk Maxwell
1831-1879

a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist. His most significant achievement was aggregating a set of equations in electricity, magnetism and inductance — eponymously named Maxwell's equations. It was the most unified model of electromagnetism yet. It is famous for introducing a detailed model of light as an electromagnetic phenomena, building upon the earlier hypothesis advanced by Faraday (Faraday Effect).

He also developed the Maxwell distribution, a statistical means to describe aspects of the kinetic theory of gases.

These two discoveries helped usher in the era of modern physics, laying the foundation for future work in such fields as special relativity and quantum mechanics. He is also known for creating the first true colour photograph in 1861.
“ [The work of Maxwell] ... the most profound and the most fruitful that physics has experienced since the time of Newton. ”

—Albert Einstein, The Sunday Post[1]

Maxwell demonstrated that electric and magnetic fields travel through space, in the form of waves, and at the constant speed of light. Finally, in 1861 Maxwell wrote a four-part publication in the Philosophical Magazine called On Physical Lines of Force where he first proposed that light was in fact undulations in the same medium that is the cause of electric and magnetic
25
Martin Luther
1483-1546
26
George Washington
1732-1799
27
Karl Marx
1818-1883
28
Wright Brothers
Orville 1871-1948
Wilbur 1867-1912
29
Genghis Khan
1162-1227
30
Adam Smith
1723(baptized)-1790
31
William Shakespeare
1564(baptized)-1616
32
John Dalton
English chemist and physicist
He is best known for his advocacy of the atomic theory and his research into colour blindness (sometimes referred to as Daltonism, in his honour)
1766-1844
33
Alexander the Great
356BCE - 323BCE
34
Napoleon I (Bonaparte)
1769-1821
35
Thomas Edison
Inventor & businessman
Invented phonograph & lightbulb...
1847-1931
36
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Dutch tradesman & scientist
Father of microbiology
Improved the microscope
1632-1723
37
William T G Morton
Dentist & physician
Administered Ether as anesthetic in 1852
1819-1868
38
Guglielmo Marconi
Developed a radiotelegraph system
1874-1937
39
Adolf Hitler
1889-1945
40
Plato
428/7BCE - 348/7BCE
41
Oliver Cromwell
1599-1658
42
Alexander Graham Bell
Scotland-Canada-USA
Awarded patent for telephone in 1876
1847-1922
43
Alexander Fleming
Scottish biologist & pharmacologist
Discovered enzyme lysozyme
Isolated the antibiotic penicillin
1881-1955
44
John Locke
First of British Empiricists
Social Contract Theory
1632-1704
45
Ludwig Van Beethoven
1770-1827
46
Werner Heisenberg
A founder of quantum mechanics
The Heisenberg uncertainty principle
1901-1976
47
Louis Daguerre
French artist & chemist
Daguerrotype
1787-1851
48
Simon Bolivar
1783-1830
49
Rene Descartes
1596-1650
50
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni
1475-1564
51
Pope Urban II
Started First Crusade (1095-1099)
Set up Roman Curia to help rule the church
1042-1099
52
Umar Ibn Al Khattab
584-644
Muhammed's companion
2nd Caliph (634-644) after Abu Bakr
53
Ashoka the Great
304BCE - 232BCE
54
Saint Augustine
Concept of just war & original sin
Converted from Manichaeism to Christianity in 387
354-430
55
William Harvey
Accurately described the circulation of blood and the heart amongst other things
1578-1657
56
Ernest Rutherford
Kiwi nuclear physicist who became known as the "father" of nuclear physics.
Orbital theory of atoms. Half-life etc
1871-1937
57
John Calvin
French Protestant theologian during the Protestant reformation.
1509-1564
58
Gregory Mendel
Moravian, Augustinian priest & scientist.
Father of Modern Genetics
1822-1884
59
Max Planck
German physicist
Founder of Quantum theory
1858-1947
60
John Lister
English surgeon who promoted the idea of sterile surgery at the Glascow Royal Infirmary
Used carbolic acid (phenol) to sterilize surgical instruments and clean wounds.
1827-1912
61
Nicolaus Otto
German inventor of the internal combustion engine; the first engine to burn fuel directly in a piston chamber
1832-1891
62
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish conquistador
Conqueror of the Inca Empire, founder of Lima
1475-1541
63
Hernan Cortez
Conqueror of Aztec Empire in Mexico
1485-1547
64
Thomas Jefferson
Principal author of the Declaration of Independence
Founding father who promoted ideals of Republicanism in the US
1803 Louisiana Purchase
1804-1806 Lewis & Clark Expedition
1743-1826
65
Queen Isabella I (of Castile)
1451-1504
66
Josef Stalin
Born in Georgia
General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee from 1922-1953
1878-1953
67
Julius Caesar
Roman military & political leader
Critical role in transforming Roman Republic into the Roman Empire
Crossed the Rubicon and conquered Gaul, first Roman invasion of Britain
100/2BCE - 44BCE
68
William I of England
Duke of Normandy (1035-87)
King of England (1066-1087)
1028-1087
69
Siegmund Freud
Austrian neurologist & psychiatrist
The father of psychoanalysis
1856-1939
70
Edward Jenner
English country doctor
Introduced & studied the smallpox vaccine
1749-1823
71
Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen
German physicist
In 1895 produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength known today as X-rays or Roentgen rays.
Won first Nobel prize in Physics in 1901
1845-1923
72
Johann Sebastian Bach
German composer and organist
1685-1750
73
Laozi (Lao Tse)
6th century BCE according to Chinese tradition
4th Century BCE according to some historians
Not a historical figure according to others
74
Voltaire
Francois-Marie Arouet
French enlightenment writer, essayist, deist and philosopher.
Supporter of social reform, and freemason along with his friend Benjamin Franklin
1694-1778
75
Johannes Kepler
German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer
Key figure in the 17th century astronomical revolution
Wrote Laws of Planetary Motion
1571-1630
76
Enrico Fermi
Italian-American noted for work on the development of the first nuclear reactor.
-contributed to development of quantum theory, particle physics and statistical mechanics
1901-1954
77
Leonhard Euler
Swiss mathematician and physicist who spent most of his life in Russia and Prussia
Published more papers than any other mathematician in history
1707-1783
78
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Genevan philosopher of the enlightenment whose political ideas influenced the French revolution, the development of socialist theory and the growth of nationalism
1712-1778
79
Niccolo Machiavelli
Italian political philosopher, musician and poet
Italian renaissance
Realist political theory (The Prince)
1469-1527
80
Robert Thomas Malthus
English demographer and political economist
Personal friend of David Hume and acquaintance of JJ Rousseau
Principle of Population
1766-1834
81
John F Kennedy
1917-1963
82
Gregory Goodwin Pincus
American biologist and researcher
Co-inventor of the contraceptive pill
1903-1967
83
Mani
210–276
Born of Iranian (Parthian) parentage in Babylon, Mesopotamia when it was part of the Persian Empire
Founder of Manicheanism, an ancient Persian gnostic religion.
84
Lenin
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov
1870-1924
85
Emperor Wen of Sui
(Yang Jian, Sui Wendi)
Founder and first emperor of Sui dynasty in China.
Hardworking administrator and micromanager.
A Buddhist himself, he encouraged the spread of Buddhism through the state, however his government officially supported Confucianism.
541-604
86
Vasco Da Gama
A Portugese explorer in the European Age of Discovery and the commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India
1460/9-1524
87
Cyrus the Great
Cyrus II of Persia, Cyrus the Elder
Founder of Persian Empire and king (559BCE-530BCE)
590BCE - 530BCE
88
Peter I of Russia
Peter the Great
Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov
On the throne from 1682-1725
Transformed the Tsardom of Russia into the Russian Empire, a major European power.
1672/8-1725
89
Mao Zedong
Marxist military and political leader and philosopher
1893-1976
90
Francis Bacon
English philosopher, statesman and essayist
Philosopher advocate and defender of the scientific revolution
Died after an experiment on preserving food with snow.
1561-1626
91
Henry Ford
Founder of Ford motor company
1863-1947
92
Mencius
Meng Tzu
Founder of a Confucian school of philosophy
372BCE - 289BCE
93
Zoroaster
6th century BCE
Iranian prophet and religious poet
Zarathustra, Zartosht
Founder of Zoroasterism
94
Queen Elizabeth I
The Virgin Queen
1533-1603
95
Mikhail Gorbachev
General Secretary of the Communist Party from 1985-1991
1931-...
96
Menes
United Upper and Lower Egypt into one kingdom
3100BCE-3000BCE
97
King Charlemagne
King of the Franks from 768-814
742-814
98
Homer
8th century BCE
99
King Justinian I
Justinian the Great, East Roman Emperor from 527-565
482/3-565
100
Mahavira
Founder of Jainism
599BCE - 527BCE