Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/61

Click to flip

61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Corticothalamic projections outnumber thalamocortical projects.

TRUE or FALSE
TRUE

Thalamic nuclei typically receive dense reciprocal feeback connectinos from the cortical areas to which they project.
The thalamus is part of the:

a. Myelencephalon
b. Mesencephalon
c. Diencephalon
d. Telencephalon
c. Diencephalon
The thalamus is divided into three sections by a Y-shaped white matter structure. What is the name of this structure?
Internal Medullary Lamina
What are the three divisions of the thalamus?
1. Medial nuclear group
2. Lateral nuclear group
3. Anterior nuclear group
The nuclei located within the internal medullary lamina are called:
Intralaminar nuclei
What are the midline thalamic nuclei?
They are an additional thin collection of nuclei lying adjacent to the third ventricle, several of which are continuous with and functionally similar to the intralaminar nuclei.
What is the thalamic reticular nucleus?
An extensive, but thin sheet enveloping the lateral aspect of the thalamus.
What are the three main categories of thalamic nuclei?
1. Relay nuclei
2. Intralaminar nuclei
3. Reticular nucleus
Of the three main categories of thalamic nuclei, which make up the majority of the thalamus?
1. Relay nuclei
What are relay nuclei in the thalamus?
They recieve inputs from numerous pathways and then project to the cortex. In addition, relay nuclei receive massive reciprocal connections back from the cortex.
Among the thalamic relay nuclei, projections to the primary sensory and motor areas tend to be the most localized.

TRUE or FALSE
TRUE
Where do most of the specific relay nuclei lie in the thalamus?
In the lateral thalamus.
What are the main INPUTS to the Ventral Posterior Lateral (VPL) nucleus?
1. Medial lemniscus
2. Spinothalamic tract
What are the main OUTPUTS from the Ventral Posterior Lateral (VPL) nucleus?
1. Somatosensory cortex
What is the proposed function of the Ventral Posterior Lateral (VPL) nucleus?
It relays somatosensory spinal inputs to the cortex.
What are the main INPUTS to the Ventral Posterior Medial(VPM) nucleus?
1. Trigeminal lemniscus
2. Trigeminothalamic tract
3. Taste inputs
What are the main OUTPUTS from the Ventral Posterior Medial (VPM) nucleus?
1. Somatosensory cortex
2. Taste cortex
What is the proposed function of the Ventral Posterior Medial (VPM) nucleus?
It relays somatosensory cranial nerve inputs and taste to the cortex.
What are the main INPUTS to the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN)?
Retina
What are the main OUTPUTS from the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN)?
Primary visual cortex
What is the proposed function of the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN)?
It relays visual inputs to the cortex
What are the main INPUTS to the Medial Geniculate Nucleus (MGN)?
Inferior colliculus
What are the main OUTPUTS from the Medial Geniculate Nucleus (MGN)?
Primary auditory cortex
What is the proposed function of the Medial Geniculate Nucleus (MGN)?
Relays auditory inputs to the cortex
What are the main INPUTS to the Ventral Lateral (VL) nucleus?
1. Internal globus pallidus
2. Deep cerebellar nuclei
3. Substantia nigra pars reticulata
What are the main OUTPUTS from the Ventral Lateral (VL) nucleus?
1. Motor cortex
2. Premotor cortex
3. Supplementary motor cortex
What is the proposed function of the Ventral Lateral (VL) nucleus?
It relays basal ganglia and cerebellar inputs to the cortex
What are the main INPUTS to the Ventral Anterior (VA) nucleus?
1. Substantia nigra pars reticulata
2. Internal globus pallidus
3. Deep cerebellar nuclei
What are the main OUTPUTS from the Ventral Anterior (VA) nucleus?
Widespread to frontal lobe, including:
1. Prefrontal cortex
2. Premotor cortex
3. Motor cortex
4. Supplementary motor cortex
What is the proposed function of the Ventral Anterior (VA) nucleus?
It relays cerebellar and basal ganglia inputs to the cortex.
What are the main INPUTS to the Pulvinar?
1. Tectum (extrageniculate visual pathways)
2. Other sensory inputs
What are the main OUTPUTS from the Pulvinar?
Parietotemoporooccipital association
What is the proposed function of the Pulvinar?
Behavioral orientation toward relevant visual and other stimuli
What are the main INPUTS to the Lateral Dorsal (LD) nucleus?
Same as the anterior nucleus:
1. Mamillary body
2. Hippocampal formation
What are the main OUTPUTS from the Lateral Dorsal (LD) nucleus?
Unknown
What is the proposed function of the Lateral Dorsal (LD) nucleus?
It functions with the anterior nuclei, which is associated with the limbic pathways.
What are the main INPUTS to the Lateral Posterior (LP) nucleus?
Same as the pulvinar:
1. Tectum (extrageniculate visual pathway)
2. Other sensory inputs
What are the main OUTPUTS from the Lateral Posterior (LP) nucleus?
Unknown
What is the proposed function of the Lateral Posterior (LP) nucleus?
It functions with the pulvinar, which is associated with behavioral orientation toward relevant visual and other stimuli.
What are the main INPUTS to the Mediodorsal (MD) nucleus?
1. Amygdala
2. Olfactory cortex
3. Limbic basal ganglia
What are the main OUTPUTS from the Mediodorsal (MD) nucleus?
Frontal cortex
What is the proposed function of the Mediodorsal (MD) nucleus?
Limbic pathways, major relay to the frontal cortex
What are the main INPUTS to the Anterior nucleus?
1. Mammillary body
3. Hippocampal formation
What are the main OUTPUTS from the Anterior nucleus?
Cingulate gyrus
What is the proposed function of the Anterior nucleus?
Limbic pathways
What are the main INPUTS to the Midline thalamic nuclei?
1. Hypothalamus
2. Basal forebrain
3. Amygdala
4. Hippocampus
What are the main OUTPUTS from the Midline thalamic nuclei?
1. Amygdala
2. Hippocampus
3. Limbic cortex
What is the proposed function of the Midline thalamic nuclei?
Limbic pathways
What are the main INPUTS to the Rostral Intralaminar Nuclei (i.e., Central medial nucleus, Paracentral nucleus, Central lateral nucleus)?
1. Deep cerebellar nuclei
2. Globus pallidus
3. Brainstem
4. Ascending reticular activating system
5. Sensory pathways
What are the main OUTPUTS from the Rostral Intralaminar Nuclei (i.e., Central medial nucleus, Paracentral nucleus, Central lateral nucleus)?
1. Cerebral cortex
2. Striatum
What is the proposed function of the Rostral Intralaminar Nuclei (i.e., Central medial nucleus, Paracentral nucleus, Central lateral nucleus)?
1. To maintain alert consciousness
2. A motor relay for the basal ganglia and the cerebellum
What are the main INPUTS to the Caudal Intralaminar Nuclei (i.e., Centromedian nucleus, Parafascicular nucleus)?
1. Globus pallidus
2. Ascending reticular activating system
3. Sensory pathways
What are the main OUTPUTS from the Caudal Intralaminar Nuclei (i.e., Centromedian nucleus, Parafascicular nucleus)?
1. Striatum
2. Cerebral cortex
What is the proposed function of the Caudal Intralaminar Nuclei (i.e., Centromedian nucleus, Parafascicular nucleus)?
It is a motor relay for the basal ganglia
What are the main INPUTS to the Reticular Nucleus?
1. Cerebral cortex
2. Thalamic relay
3. Intralaminar nuclei
4. Ascending reticular activating systems
What are the main OUTPUTS from the Reticular Nucleus?
1. Thalamic relay
2. Intralaminar nuclei
What is the proposed function of the Reticular Nucleus?
It regulates the state of the other thalamic nulcei.
All sensory modalites have specific relays in the lateral thalamus en route to their primary cortical areas.

TRUE or FALSE
FALSE

Olfaction does not go through the thalamus.
How are intralaminar nuclei differentiated from relay nuclei in the thalamus?
Intralaminar nuclei's main inputs and outputs are from the basal ganglia.
How is the reticular nucleus differentiated from relay and intralaminar nuclei?
It is the only nucleus that does not project to the cortex.

It receives inputs mainly from the other thalamic nuclei and the cortex and then projects back to the thalamus.
What is Thalamic Pain Syndrome?
It can be seen in patients with tumors of the thalamus.

It is a vague sense of pain without the ability to accurately localize it.