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70 Cards in this Set

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In England who were the leaders?
Monarchs
John Wycliffe
John was in the humanistic tradition wants to return to the sources.
What does John Wycliffe attack?
He attacks property and wealth. Says monks and clerics cannot hold possessions without sin.
What rights did John Wycliffe give the lords?
He gave the lords the right to take away the goods of the clergy. This made him popular with the lower people.
What is John Wycliffe's attack on the Lord's Supper?
He attacks transubstantiation
Lollards
they folow Wycliffe anti-clerical and anti-roman
What did John Wycliffe stress?
Stressed scripture and preaching as the norms of faith.
What does Wycliffe say about transubstantiation?
He says it's an effectual sign not transubstantiation. This makes him not well liked.
Thomas Moore
Humanist movement. Very fluent in Latin and Greek. Becomes a lawyer and calls for purification of the Church. Friend of Erasmus.
Who did Henry VIII appoint chencellor?
Thomas Moore.
What happened to Thomas Moore?
Henry VIII appointed him chancellor he resigns because he doesn't accept Henry's divorce. BUT he is still executed for treason.
Henry VIII is married to?
Catherine of Aragon.
What had to happen for Henry VIII to marry Catherine of Aragon? Why?
He had to get a dispensation to marry her. She had been married to his brother for 4 months but claimed that the marriage had never been consecrated.
Who was Catherine of Aragon?
She was the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella.
What happens that causes Henry VIII to want a divorce?
He falls in love with Ann Boleyn and claims that his marriage with Catherine was invalid.
What happens as far as the divorce process for Henry VIII and Catherine?
Henry gets annulment, Catherine appeals and Clement VII refuses to grant the annulment. SO Henry forbids appeals to Rome because Rome shouldn't have control over Church of England. He then marries Ann Boleyn privately and cuts off funding to Rome.
What is Clement's role in the Henry VIII divorce procedings?
He refuses to grant Henry VIII an annulment. Orders Henry VIII to leave or be excommunicated. Henry puts Parliament Act in place.
Parliment Act
Act of Supremacy. Henry VIII declares himself Supreme Head of Church of England. Can appoint bishops ect. Anyone who doesn't sign on will be considered guilty of treason.
After enacting the parliament act what does henry do in regards to his marriage with Catherine?
He declares the marriage void.
Once Henry's marriage to Catherine has been declared void what happens?
Ann Boleyn becomes queen and Baby Elizabeth becomes a legitimate heir.
Is Henry interested in reform theology?
No he is interested in freedom of Rome.
When Henry VIII cuts off funds to rome what happens?
Pope Clement excommunicates him. and he makes himself Pope of England and Pariament annuls his marriage.
What does Henry VIII write?
Defense of the Seven Sacraments and is declared a defender of the faith by Leo X
Why does Henry start denying the Catholic faith?
He needs support of the divorce.
Thomas Cranmer
Appointed archbishop of Canterbury. He pushed for reform.
What are 2 major changes to the mass Cranmer made?
Translated the Bible into English
Sings in English
10 Articles of 1536
Similar to Catholics but not all.
No sola scriptura beliefs
Asserts the authority of the Bible, ancient creeds, 4 eccumenical councils.
How many sacraments did they have in the English Reform Church? What were they?
Three. Baptism, Lord's Supper and confession
What did English Church under Henry believe in regards to salvation?
They taught salvation was by faith AND works,
What did English Church believe about Lord's Supper
They taught real physical presence
What did they say about images, prayers to the dead, purgatory, clerical vestments, and invocation of saints?
They believed they were okay.
What does Henry VIII do in regards to Church reform?
He wants to remain as Catholic as he can. Keeps as much as possible but bends when he must to gain support for the divorce.
What does Henry VIII do in regards to the monastaries?
He closed them down and their wealth was given to the crown.
Why did he dissolve the monastaries?
1. Monks were loyal to Rome
2. Accusation was they were living immorally, luxurym idle, spending wealth of Rome.
3. Political promise: income from houses would reduce taxes. If monastaries are closed and then people pay lower taxes because each goes to Rome.
Could henry dissolve all of the monastaries? What did he do?
He dissolved the smaller houses who had less than 200 pounds per year. Income went to the king. Couldn't pass a law to close the larger ones but he threatened them and convinced most of them to close by threatening execution to members who refused to shut down.
What did the 6 Articles of Henry VIII do?
Now he no longer needs support of protestants. Now he writes new articles that attempt to establish orthodoxy.
Affirms transubstantiation
Only have to do one bread OR wine, not both.
Affirms clerical celibacy
Affirmed private confession.
What happens to Ann Boleyn?
She is executed for infertility
Who gives Henry VIII a son?
Jane Seymor
Edward IV
Henry's son and heir to the throne. He was 8 y/o when Henry died.
When Henry VIII dies, Cranmer gets the upper hand. What does he do?
He moves Church toward Protestantism
Read bible during worship
Allows clergy marriage
12 homilies assure right doctrine
Abolishes Henry's 6 articles
Communion under both sides.
What book does Cranmer write?
Book of Common Prayer which was just a translation of the mass to English when he wrote the first version. But then he wrote a revision which had substantial change.
What was the second version of Cranmer's Book of Common Prayer like?
Closer to Calvin/Zwingli understanding of Eucharist.
Communion is declared NOT to be a sacrifice. Now we don't have reference to Christ as sacrifice.
Edward died at age 15. Mary daughter of Catherine of Aragon was now heir.
She was Catherine's daughter. She had parliament declare Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine valid. Declares religious laws of Edward's reigh invalid. Wants to restore relations with Rome.
What does Mary do during her reign?
She has MANY put to death including Cranmer.
Refuses to have Elizabeth killed.
Many leaders flee to other continents.
She returns Church's monastic possessions and gives back what was taken from Churches.
Mary dies and Elizabeth comes to power
She comes to power.
Elizabethan Settlement
Wants English Church
Unites subjects
She is supreme leader of the Church
Replaces Mary's bishops
Excecutes some-Much more tolerate than Mary was.
Elizabeth's 39 articles
Attempts to find a compromise that vast majority of subjects can accept.
These are written with ambiguity and looseness because she wants a compromise between Luther and Calvin.
Via media
Middle way. Elizabeth tries to create a middle way for her subjects
Did Elizabethian settlement believe in sola scriptura?
YES
What did Elizabethan settlement believe about early church creeds?
Believed they are authoratative because they can be proved by scripture. Church can't ordain things not in scripture. Nor enforece anything not found in scripture.
What does the Church of England teach on the Church
Teach Church can err and has erred.
Tradition has positive value
Church order and organization and practices should be retained unless it explicitly conflicts with scripture.
Did Church of England believe in Sola Fide?
Yes, they believed in justification by faith alone. Good works were to follow from justification.
Works done beforehand are not pleasing to God.
What does it mean when they say no works to supererogation
Can't do more than what is required.
We must build treasure in Heaven.
Did they believe we should strive for perfection?
NO.
What did they think about the penitential system of the Church?
They reject purgatory and indulgences.
Works only satisfy temporal punishment.
What do they think about worship and adoration of images and relics?
They reject worshiping them BUT they can display them as long as the people do NOT pray to them.
What does the Elizabethan Church think about prayer to the saints?
Rejects prayer to the saints
What does the worship service look like under Elizabethan Settlement?
Services aren't radically changed b/c she doesn't want to disturb subjects. She does have them translated into English as opposed to Latin and makes some changes to the formula.
Why does Elizabeth make some changes to the mass?
Litugrical issues and Church ordered considered non-essential compared wiht calgin.

Wanted to remove superstition and folly.
Since non-essential doesn't matter.
What does Elizabeth give to local Churches?
She gives them freedom. She says they can change worship ceremonies and rights.

Authority beloongs to Church Bishop not the individual. She wanted to avoid proliferation of the sects.
What did Elizabeth say of the Church?
Visible and Invisible
What are the marks of the Elizabethan Settlement church? What is not a mark of this church?
Preaching and administering the sacraments
Apostolic succession doesn't qualify as a mark of the Church
What did cranmer originally believe in regards to Lord's Supper what did he end up believing?
Originally believed in real presence but then rejects and adopts calvin's position.
Ends up believing it's not a sacrifice.
No local presence but believers do have true partakers in the body and blood of Christ (subjective side).
Ministries
English reformers often argue against apostolic succession. But state Church has authority to control the right of ordination. If you are to be a priest you must be ordained by English Bishop. No election by pastors.
Under Elizabethan settlement how are pastors ordained?
But state Church has authority to control the right of ordination. If you are to be a priest you must be ordained by English Bishop. No election by pastors.
What does Elizabeth's Article 36 do?
It affirms ordinal of Edward VI which says the Church will still be ordaining priests. Now they don't think mass is a sacrifice.
Does the Church continue believing in Catholics?
No now priests are ordained differently so Catholic priests don't consider them valid.
What are the Elizabethan views on Church and state?
They believe Church and state are together. "state ecclesiastical"
Church and state: same people, different roles.
Dissent
Some were influenced by calvin.
Couldn't accept some "medieval litugrical practices" these were considered indifferent
Purify liturgy purilain movement
Demand Church to be purified according to doctrine of new testament
John Knox
Development of Calvinism to Presbyterianism.