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83 Cards in this Set

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Acrylic
-resilience and crimp of wool
-more moisture absorbtion, wicking adds comfort
- delusterant for DULLNESS
- Dry OR Wet spun
- Dogbone or Bean Shape
Compressional resiliency
ability of fabric to return to original thickness after compression (loft)
Copolymer
a polymer composed of more than one type of mer
Drawing
fiber finishing step where fiber is elongated after spinning to alter its molecular arrangement
- increase strength, toughness, elasticity
- used for ALL manufactured fibers
-increases crystallinity and orientation
Elasterell-p
generic subclass of a stretch polyester
Gel Spinning
-dissolved polyetheylene polymer
-forms viscuous gel in the solvent
- extrusion through the spinneret, extraction & drawing
Glazing
flattening of the cross section of heat sensitive fibers
- results from exposure to heat
Graft Polymer
-type of copolymer
-another type of mer is attached to the backbone polymer chain
Heat Sensitivity
Ability to soften, melt, or shrink when exposed to heat
(thermoplastic)
Heat Setting
stabalize yarns or fabrics with heat
High-Tenacity fibers
fibers that have been modified in the spinning process to increase fiber strength
-nylon, polyester
Homopolymer
a polymer composed of a single type of mer
Lastol
generic subclass of an elastic olefin
Low-pilling fibers
egineered to have a lower flex life which decreases pilling
Melt Spinning
- method for most synthetics
- cold air
Modacrylic
- High elastic recovery
- Burn less than acrylic
- SEF fiber
- used in faux fur and wigs
- STAPLE LENGTH
- DRY SPINNING
MVTR
Moisture Vapor Transport Rate
-measures how quickly moisture vapor moves from the side of the fabric next to the body to the fabric's exterior side
Nylon
- 1st synthetic fiber
- melt spun
- better than polyester
-cheaper than wool & silk
- durable, lusterous
-solution dyed, acid
WRINKLE FREE (heat set)
-high resiliency / dim. stabl
HYDROPHOBIC
-damaged by sun
-resistant to rotting
Olefin
- Quick drying, Comfortable
- Strong, exllnt abrasn resis
- Resistant to chemicals & sunlight
- lusterous
- solution dyed - difficult to dye
- low specific gravity (lightweight)
HYDROPHOBIC
- excellent wicking
- WARM
- Good dem. stab.
- Pilling (staple length)
- Good resiliency
- easy to clean
Oleophillic
Fibers that have a high affinity for oil
Pilling
Formation of tiny balls of fiber ends and lint fabric surface
Polyamides
-generic term
-polymers containing an amide group
-term for nylon
Polyester
-Recycleable
-good resistance to sunlight and chlorine
-Melt Spun/ thermoplastic
-Trade Name Dacron
-easily blended
- delusterant added
-solution dyed , dispersed
- Excellent resiliency, wrinkles from body heat and moisture
HYDROPHOBIC
-clean easy
Polyethylene
type of olefin made from polymerizing ethylene
Polypropylene
Type of olefin made from polymerizing propylene
Synthetic Fibers
Produced from synthetic polymers made from basic raw materials
- most petrochemicals, or petroleum based
*pilling problem
Wet Spinning
?
Dry Spinning
?
Melt Spinning
?
hydrophobic
-dont absorb water
-uncomfortable
Size
-depends on end use
-manipulated through spinning process
Low elongation fibers
for blends
Nylon has good elastic recovery
at high elongation
Tightly woven nylon
wind/water resistant
High- Tenacity Nylon
-good strength
-used in ropes
-low elongation
Nylon Swimwear
blended because med/low resistance to chlorine
Nylon main use
Carpets or rugs
-good abraision resistance & durability
-pantyhose, rain coat, spring jacket
Polartec
88% recycled polyester
12% virgin polyester

-Trade Name from Malden Mills
P.E.T. polyester
Poly(ethylene tenephthalate)

*Most Commonly Used
Polyester/Cotton
Batiste
More Common Blend
Recycled Polyester
Fortrel Ecospun
Ecofil
Polartec
-more expensive than polyester
(bottle-grade)
-bottles, worn out garments
Linen-Like fibers
polyester/ rayon blends woven w/ uneven yarns
Silk-like
lusterous polyester filament fibers
Wool-like fibers
bulked fibers w/ matte finish
Fiberfill
polyester recovery from deformation
-thermal insulation
Polyester high elasticity
at LOW levels of elongation
Polyester strength
-good strength and abraision resistance
-pills stay on fabric
- resistant to sunlight and rotting
High performance polyester
Coolmax
Fiberweb/ nonwoven fabrics
polyester interfacing
Polyester uses
Sheer curtains
fiberfill
sleeping bags, tents, seat belts, fishing line, luggage
Polyester blend with wool
mens suits
Elastomeric
Spandex
Rubber
Natural
Synthetic
Chemical, Heat, Fire resistant
Aramid
Glass
Metal
PBI
PTFE
Comfort Stretch
-10-15 % stretch
- 2-5% spandex or elastomeric
-broken yarns protrude from surface
Power Stretch
- 30-50% power control
- figure control
- bare, covered, core-spun spandex
Bare Yarn
-end use applications
- fine or less expensice yars
(band on high-knees)
Covered Yarns
- used where additional strength needed
- non visible from outside
Natural Rubber
-oldest elastomer
-from rubber tree
- less expensive
- low tenacity
- excellent elongation and recovery
- damage easily
** Not used very much
**People allergic
Synthesized Rubber
- less expensive than spandex
- damage easily
- NEOPRENE
Spandex
- soft and hard segments
- hard segements hold chain together
-better than rubber
- easily delustered or dyed
-monofilament
- ususally BLENDED
-good resiliency, dim. stab.
- excellent elastic recovery
**EXPENSIVE
Lycra
- 1st manufactured spandex
Spandex moisture absorption
LOW
Spandex abraision Resistance
LOW
Spandex Weathering
- good resistance to light
-resistance to aging
- resistant to body oils
- damaged by chlorine
Black Lycra
- natural looking dark fibers
- stays black after wash
- spun dyed
Low Power Lycra
- knitwear
-easy care
- better fit
- add loft when blended
XFIT Lycra
- patented denim
- multi-stretch
- lasting good looks
SHAPE MEMORY
Lycra Power
- reduce muscle vibration
- improve body & brain feedback
- Increase accuracy
Taft Lycra flex
- hair lycra product
- shine
Rimmel Lycra Wear
- long lasting nail polish
- UK
Bilateral Fiber
- Acrylic
- Bicomponent ( 2 polymers side by side)
*Imitates Wool Crimp
Uses of Acrylic
- knitting & crocheting
- Cold & Warm weather
- EXCELLENT IN ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
-outdoor and activewear uses
- storage sacks
(sun, rotting)
Acrylic & Moda strength
- Do Not Wrinkle
- PILLING
- moderate resiliency & dim. stab.
- easy to clean
-HYDROPHOBIC
- WEAK
Thermal Insulation
- acrylic fibers trap air
SEF
Self Extinguishing Fiber
Types of Olefin Fibers
Polyethylene
Polypropylene
Olefin durability
same as Nylon & Polyester, but CHEAPER
Tyvek
- Olefin
- Good Insulation
Uses of Olefin
- outdoor and indoor carpets
- lower CRUSH RESISTANCE than nylon and polyester
Thinsulate
- 3M
- Olefin used for cold weather apparel
High- Tenacity Polypropylene fibers
industrial end uses
Low- Tenacity Polyethylene fibers
non-woven applications
Olefin dry clean
NOT with perc
(perchloroethylene)