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64 Cards in this Set

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Yarns
Continuous thread-like strands composed of fibers twisted together.
Fabrics
Women/knitted yarns.
Put-up
The way fabric is packaged.
eg) rolled put-up
doubled and rolled, etc.
Shorts
Fabrics shorter than 40 yds.
Remnants
1-10 yds pieces of cloth, very short. They are sold by pounds.
Mills
Company that owns textiles machinery and makes fabric. Some mills are vertically integrated and will produce their own yarns and perform the finishings.
Converter
Individual/Org that buys greige goods(unfinished goods)from mills, dye or print the fabrics by other companies and sells the finished fabric.
Jobber
Buys from mills/converters/manufacturers and sells discontinued/overrun fabrics. They offer low prices but not the continuity of certain fabrics. Help dispose of excess merchandise for the mill.
Direct Importer
buys fabric/manufactured fabrics from a foreign mill or other supplier and brings it to USA.
Retail Stores
Over the counter sales.
Home sewers purchase fabrics sold in retail stores because they carry a huge variety of fabrics.
Overseas Agent
Intermediatry.
Company or individual who represents an exporter or importer in the countries overseas where it conducts business.
Domestic Textiles Industry
Composed of companies that develop, produce, and distribute fabrics.
Includes: yarn mills, fabric mills, companies that process fabrics/dying&printing, etc. converters
Private Label
A retail brand in which products are manufactured specifically for a retailer and excusively sold for it.
ATMI
American Textiles Manufacturers Institute
ISO
International Organization for Standardization
Spinnerette
device used to form the filaments.
Stable Fibers
Fibers measured in inches.
Filament Fibers
Longer length.
Tow
Thousands of filaments are grouped to form a thick rope.
Crimp
The bends and twists along the length of a fiber.
Greater crimp increases resiliency, bulk, warmth, elongation, absorbency, and skin comfort. However, hand becomes harsher and luster is reduced as crimp increases. Crimps allow fibers to stand off the skin, and creates a cold sensation. Crimp also allows the fiber to withstand being bent ack on itself many times without breaking.
Large Diameter
Bulkier fabrics because they do not pack as well as thin fibers.
Fine Diameter
Sheer, lightweight, and more drapable and softer to the touch.
Hydrophillic
Absorbs water easily.
Thermoplastic
Able to be melted.
Abrasion Resistance
The ability to resist wear from rubbing that contributes to fabric durability.
Hydrophobic Fibers
All the manufactured fibers besides rayon, lyocell and acetate are hydrophobic.
Elasticity
Ability to increase in length when under tension(elongation) and then return to the original length when released (recovery)
Elastomeric
Spandex and rubber.
Elongate at least 100%. After being stretched, they return forcibly to approximately their original dimentions.
Flexibility
Ability to bend easily and repeatedly without breaking. eg) Acetate
Hand
The way fibers, yarns or fabrics feel when handled.
Resiliency
Ability to spring back to shape after being creased, twisted or distorted.
Pilling
Formation of groups of short or broken fibers on the surface of a fabric that are tangled together in the shape of a tiny ball called a pill.
Hydrophobic fibers tend to pill more because they have greater electrical static attraction for each other and do not fall off the fabric surface.
Wicking
Ability to transfer moisture from one section to another. Usually the moisture is along the surface, but it may also pass through the fiber when a liquid is absorbed by the fiber.
Flax
comes from flax stem and stalk of the plant and is harvested by pulling the entire plant from the ground. When the fiber is processed, it is called Linen.
Wool, Silk
Protein fiber. Hydrophobic.
Lycra
Brand of spandex.
Fiber Trademark
Word or words used by a fiber supplier or producer to distinguish its fibers from fibers of the same class produced or sold by others. Inteded to attract the attention of potential customers, both industrial and consumer.
Acetate
Formed with cellulose acetate. Excellent drape, medium weight, luxurious hand. Fair resiliency and absorbency. No pilling, inexpensive.
Lyocell
composed of solvent-spun cellulose. self-contained solvent-spun process used to produce this fiber creates less water and air pollution. Stronger, does not shrink as much, luster, soft hand, good drape.
Nylon
formed with long-chain synthetic polyamide. Lightweight, great strength, abrasion resistant. Elasticity, resiliency, good drape.
Olefin
forms with long-chain synthetic polymer. Lightweight, good strength, abrasion resistance. Sunlight resistance and weatherability. Wicking action. Resiliency.
Polyester
Medium weight, good strength, abrasion resistance. Elasticity, resiliency, best wash-and-wear fiber.
Rayon
Viscose rayon is medium weight, fairly good strength and abrasion resistance. Hydrophilic. No static or pilling problems, inexpensive.
Spandex
Lightweight, excellent stretch, durability. Chlorine bleach causes yellowing of the fiber. There are no pilling or static problems.
Microfibers
Microdenier fibers. Much thinner than other fibers. Can be blended.
Spun yarns
Composed of relatively short lengths of fiber twisted or spun so that they hold together. High twsit is necessary to press the fibers together to give strength to the resulting yarn.
Filament yarns
composed of continuous strands of fibers that may be miles long. Produced directly from a spinnerette or from a silk cocoon. Most filament yarns are of low twist to provide a smooth, lustrous surface. Some are tightly twisted to produce special effects such as crepe.
Soft-twist yarn
Softer, fluffier, more flexible.
Hard-twist yarn
Smoother, firmer, kinkier, and stronger.
Crepe-Filament yarns
yarns purposely made with high twist to produce a pebbly, harsh surface effect.
Made by combining S and Z to produce the balanced, pebbly effect on the fabric surface.
S-Twist
Spirals run upward to the left.
Z-Twist
the spirals run upward to the right.
Carded yarn
All staple fibers must be carded to help clean and disentangle the fibers.
Combed yarn
further cleans the fibers and puts them in parallel position.
Woolens
Made of carded yarns. Fuzzier, uneven diameter, bulkier, has wider range of fiber length.
Worsted
Made of combed yarns.
Smooth with little fuzz, even diameter, more tightly twisted and firmer than woolen yarn.
Single/Ply yarn
when a ply yarn is untwisted, it separates into two or more finer yarns. when a single yarn is twisted, it comes apart.
Open-end spinning
A method of producting spun arns.
Ring-spun yarn
only one process from carded silver to spun yarn is required.
Blended yarn
Made of two or more fiber types.
Mixture
fabric composed of two or more different types of yarn.
Core-spun yarns
they have a central filament core of spandex with staple fiber that has been spun around the core. Appears to be a spun yarn without the core center.
Novelty yarns
yarns that are not of uniform thickness throughout their length, but have deliberate irregularities on their surfaces such as knots, bumps, curls, etc. However they are not durable.
Denier System
heavier and thicker filament yarns are designated by higher denier numbers. Fine yarns would be around 10 denier, heavier would be 100 denier.
eg. 300-10-1/2 Z
a yarn of 300 denier in size, containing 10 filaments with 1/2 TPI of Z twist.