Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Continuous thread-like strands composed of fibers twisted together.
Women/knitted yarns.
The way fabric is packaged.
eg) rolled put-up
doubled and rolled, etc.
Fabrics shorter than 40 yds.
1-10 yds pieces of cloth, very short. They are sold by pounds.
Company that owns textiles machinery and makes fabric. Some mills are vertically integrated and will produce their own yarns and perform the finishings.
Individual/Org that buys greige goods(unfinished goods)from mills, dye or print the fabrics by other companies and sells the finished fabric.
Buys from mills/converters/manufacturers and sells discontinued/overrun fabrics. They offer low prices but not the continuity of certain fabrics. Help dispose of excess merchandise for the mill.
Direct Importer
buys fabric/manufactured fabrics from a foreign mill or other supplier and brings it to USA.
Retail Stores
Over the counter sales.
Home sewers purchase fabrics sold in retail stores because they carry a huge variety of fabrics.
Overseas Agent
Company or individual who represents an exporter or importer in the countries overseas where it conducts business.
Domestic Textiles Industry
Composed of companies that develop, produce, and distribute fabrics.
Includes: yarn mills, fabric mills, companies that process fabrics/dying&printing, etc. converters
Private Label
A retail brand in which products are manufactured specifically for a retailer and excusively sold for it.
American Textiles Manufacturers Institute
International Organization for Standardization
device used to form the filaments.
Stable Fibers
Fibers measured in inches.
Filament Fibers
Longer length.
Thousands of filaments are grouped to form a thick rope.
The bends and twists along the length of a fiber.
Greater crimp increases resiliency, bulk, warmth, elongation, absorbency, and skin comfort. However, hand becomes harsher and luster is reduced as crimp increases. Crimps allow fibers to stand off the skin, and creates a cold sensation. Crimp also allows the fiber to withstand being bent ack on itself many times without breaking.
Large Diameter
Bulkier fabrics because they do not pack as well as thin fibers.
Fine Diameter
Sheer, lightweight, and more drapable and softer to the touch.
Absorbs water easily.
Able to be melted.
Abrasion Resistance
The ability to resist wear from rubbing that contributes to fabric durability.
Hydrophobic Fibers
All the manufactured fibers besides rayon, lyocell and acetate are hydrophobic.
Ability to increase in length when under tension(elongation) and then return to the original length when released (recovery)
Spandex and rubber.
Elongate at least 100%. After being stretched, they return forcibly to approximately their original dimentions.
Ability to bend easily and repeatedly without breaking. eg) Acetate
The way fibers, yarns or fabrics feel when handled.
Ability to spring back to shape after being creased, twisted or distorted.
Formation of groups of short or broken fibers on the surface of a fabric that are tangled together in the shape of a tiny ball called a pill.
Hydrophobic fibers tend to pill more because they have greater electrical static attraction for each other and do not fall off the fabric surface.
Ability to transfer moisture from one section to another. Usually the moisture is along the surface, but it may also pass through the fiber when a liquid is absorbed by the fiber.
comes from flax stem and stalk of the plant and is harvested by pulling the entire plant from the ground. When the fiber is processed, it is called Linen.
Wool, Silk
Protein fiber. Hydrophobic.
Brand of spandex.
Fiber Trademark
Word or words used by a fiber supplier or producer to distinguish its fibers from fibers of the same class produced or sold by others. Inteded to attract the attention of potential customers, both industrial and consumer.
Formed with cellulose acetate. Excellent drape, medium weight, luxurious hand. Fair resiliency and absorbency. No pilling, inexpensive.
composed of solvent-spun cellulose. self-contained solvent-spun process used to produce this fiber creates less water and air pollution. Stronger, does not shrink as much, luster, soft hand, good drape.
formed with long-chain synthetic polyamide. Lightweight, great strength, abrasion resistant. Elasticity, resiliency, good drape.
forms with long-chain synthetic polymer. Lightweight, good strength, abrasion resistance. Sunlight resistance and weatherability. Wicking action. Resiliency.
Medium weight, good strength, abrasion resistance. Elasticity, resiliency, best wash-and-wear fiber.
Viscose rayon is medium weight, fairly good strength and abrasion resistance. Hydrophilic. No static or pilling problems, inexpensive.
Lightweight, excellent stretch, durability. Chlorine bleach causes yellowing of the fiber. There are no pilling or static problems.
Microdenier fibers. Much thinner than other fibers. Can be blended.
Spun yarns
Composed of relatively short lengths of fiber twisted or spun so that they hold together. High twsit is necessary to press the fibers together to give strength to the resulting yarn.
Filament yarns
composed of continuous strands of fibers that may be miles long. Produced directly from a spinnerette or from a silk cocoon. Most filament yarns are of low twist to provide a smooth, lustrous surface. Some are tightly twisted to produce special effects such as crepe.
Soft-twist yarn
Softer, fluffier, more flexible.
Hard-twist yarn
Smoother, firmer, kinkier, and stronger.
Crepe-Filament yarns
yarns purposely made with high twist to produce a pebbly, harsh surface effect.
Made by combining S and Z to produce the balanced, pebbly effect on the fabric surface.
Spirals run upward to the left.
the spirals run upward to the right.
Carded yarn
All staple fibers must be carded to help clean and disentangle the fibers.
Combed yarn
further cleans the fibers and puts them in parallel position.
Made of carded yarns. Fuzzier, uneven diameter, bulkier, has wider range of fiber length.
Made of combed yarns.
Smooth with little fuzz, even diameter, more tightly twisted and firmer than woolen yarn.
Single/Ply yarn
when a ply yarn is untwisted, it separates into two or more finer yarns. when a single yarn is twisted, it comes apart.
Open-end spinning
A method of producting spun arns.
Ring-spun yarn
only one process from carded silver to spun yarn is required.
Blended yarn
Made of two or more fiber types.
fabric composed of two or more different types of yarn.
Core-spun yarns
they have a central filament core of spandex with staple fiber that has been spun around the core. Appears to be a spun yarn without the core center.
Novelty yarns
yarns that are not of uniform thickness throughout their length, but have deliberate irregularities on their surfaces such as knots, bumps, curls, etc. However they are not durable.
Denier System
heavier and thicker filament yarns are designated by higher denier numbers. Fine yarns would be around 10 denier, heavier would be 100 denier.
eg. 300-10-1/2 Z
a yarn of 300 denier in size, containing 10 filaments with 1/2 TPI of Z twist.