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86 Cards in this Set

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Involves students development in semantic and syntactic features, such as vocabulary items
Academic Language Development:
Lexical language or language needed to comprehend and communicate about content-area subjects, such as mathematics, science, and social studies
Academic Language:
The subconscious process of learning to comprehend and communicate in a language gained through meaningful interactions in the target language in natural communication
Acquisition
English is a language in which symbols reflect the pronunciation of the words.
Alphabetic Language
May or may not be the case that the students first language is alphabetic, possibly making the transfer to English more difficult.
Alphabetic Language
Making connections with the fact that symbols stand for sounds in a written language.
Alphabetic Principal
a form of assessment in which students are asked to perform real world tasks rather than pen-to-paper drills.
Authentic Assessment
A brief that humans learn language through reinforcement.
Behaviorist Theory
Students can usually develop the basic ability to communicate socially in a new language within six months to two years.
BICS( Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills):
Proficiency in academic language development needed for content areas with specialized, lexical terminology; usually takes 5-7 years to develop.
CALPS (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency Skills)
Correcting an ELL’s statement by restating the student’s mistakes several times in correct English within a conversation rather than drawing direct attention to it or provide a rule.
Circumlocution
memorization, categorization, generalization, metacognition, involved in synthesizing and internalizing language rules for second-language acquisition.
Cognitive Process
having the skills to speak and comprehend when spoken to in order to communicate in a language.
Communicative Competence
Learning in math, science, SS, LA, ect. That requires both linguistic and conceptual skills particularly with the academic lexical vocabulary.
Content-area learning
Social, emotional, academic, and behavioral features that are interrelated parts of language development.
Developmental Characteristics
Refers to Vygotsky and the “Zone of proximal development,”
Developmentally appropriate instruction
Verbal expressive in speech or in writing
Discourse
The critical analysis of language development for ESL students.
Diagnosis
A language approach emphasizing equality of education opportunity for both English and non-English-speaking children through an educational process that validates and fully develops both languages learners.
Dual Language
English Language Learners, students who are placed in ESL or bilingual classrooms
ELL’s
formerly the label was Limited English Proficiency
ELL’s
motivating instruction that increases the involvement of students and seeks for them to take ownership of their learning and do meaningful and effective work.
Engaging Instruction
English Language Arts and reading competencies
ELA
The basis of ESL instruction, all ESL teachers must also attend to these and the ESL competencies.
ELA
Proficiency in English for ESL students is typically determined upon passing a standardized English language test.
English Language Proficiency
is 70% or fortieth percentile.
A passing score for English Language Proficiency
Self-contained, pull-out, Newcomer Centers, dual language , and immersion.
ESL Programs (5)
a belief in the superiority of one’s own ethnic group.
Ethnocentrism
To increase the likelihood, strength, or effectiveness of learning.
Facilitate learning
a language principle, statement, or idea having general application: change y to I and add ed.
Generalization
words that appear many more times than most other words in spoken or written language.
High-frequency words
the teacher assesses the learner’s language level and adds one level to it to encourage challenging learning: as in Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development.
I plus 1
method in which the home language is rarely used and then only to clarify English.
Immersion
ongoing appraisal by casual observation, discussion, or by other nonstandard procedures.
Informal assessment
Clear statements of what teachers want learners to accomplish.
Instructional Goals
Language Proficiency Assessment Committee.
LPAC
Responsible for identification placement, and exiting of ELLs from an ESL or bilingual program
LPAC
Established that a district must provide an ESl or bilingual program if there are 20 or more ELL in a grade level.
Lau vs. Nichols
the conscious intentional study of a language, its structure and the way it functions through formal work.
Learned Knowledge
Limited English Proficient
LEP
has been commonly replaced by the Office of Civil Rights with ELL, which is less negative in its connotation.
LEP
the understanding that a written letter “stands” for a certain sound.
Letter-sound association
vocabulary belonging to a particular subject that one must understand in order to navigate through that particular content area.
Lexical Understanding
the ability to use the correct grammatical form and structure to express a given meaning.
Linguistic Competence
a supportive, positive oral/speaking environment with considerable conversation opportunities is important for ESL development.
Linguistic environment
awareness and understanding of one’s own thinking and cognitive process; thinking about one’s thinking.
Meta cognition
belief that humans are norm with the innate ability for speaking language, and when exposed to language, this ability “kicks in” an innate propensity for language acquisition.
Nativist theory
a bilingual or ESL program that makes use of facilities to separate first-year ELLs form the general population.
Newcomer Centers
serve students through a program of intensive language development and academic and cultural orientation, for a limited time period. (usually 6- 18 months)
Newcomer Centers
Conversation
Oral discourse
words that are not pronounced like the rules that should govern them state.
Phonetically irregular words
Characters or symbols , as in a phonetic alphabet, that represents a word or phoneme in speech.
Phonograms
Language message often consist of interpretation not based on exact words.
Pragmatics
“Where is the rest of the homemade pie?” “Well John was here….”
Example of Pragmatics:
ESL model in which students leave the regular classroom for a period of time during the school day in order to work with a special ESL teacher alone or in a small group.
Pull-out:
Real things such as photos, posters, souvenirs that the teacher can introduce to make instruction more concrete.
Realia
the amount of spoken language one can aurally process, which is usually up to four times greater than an individual’s ability to speak.
Receptive Vocabulary
ELLs are taught with regular English-speaking students for the entire day, or are placed in an ESL classroom with ESL students with similar needs I language arts.
Self-contained
vernacular or commonly spoken English
BICS
Academic language.
CALPS
factors includes religion, rites of passage, expectations for genders, values.
Social cultural
the ability to interact in different social registers using appropriate rules and politeness for that situation
Sociolinguistic competence:
the ability to make use of limited linguistic resources to express ones ideas and comprehend input.
Strategic competences
formal systematic arrangement of words in sentences.
Structure
the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences
Syntax
integrating analysis of data to discover facts and /or develop knowledge concepts or interpretations.
Synthesizing
incorporation cause and effect, comparing and contrasting, sequencing, main ideas, ect, to apply effective strategies for facilitating ESl students reading comprehension in English.
Text structure
a method used for assessing understanding, when the ESL teacher gives a command and the recently arrived students performs the command correctly.
Total Physical Response (TPR)
the basic part of any word is the root, a prefix at the beginning of a root word and /or a suffix at the end can be added to change the meaning.
Word formation
was passed to make sure that English would be learned but was later judged unconstitutional.
Nationality Act of 1906
In what year did the Bilingual Education Act provided funds for bilingual/ESl programs
1968
How often should schools report the progress of their ELL students?
Annually
When should the principal review, develop, and revise the Campus Improvement Plan for the purpose of improving student performance?
Each school year.
ESL programs are also called…
ELD (English Language Development Programs)
What is another term for dual language?
two-way immersion
T/F: ESL programs are federally funded.
True
Which program best promotes pride in the primary language while still fostering academic language success in the target language?
Two-way dual language
How should a teacher go about finding a students developmentally appropraite level?
By informally assessing their prior knowledge and skills through oral discourse.
Should the teaccher use social and academic language with the student?
Yes, English language proficiency does not occur if the learner is not exposed to a rich env. of dialogue.
what is an appositive clause?
is a noun or pronoun that usually follows another noun or pronoun to describe or clearify the first one. EX: Ms. Kelly, the teacher.
certain emotions, such as anxiety, self-doubt, and mere boredom interfere with the process of acquiring a second language
Affective Filter Hypothesis
explains that bilinguals must achieve minimum levels or thresholds of proficiency in both languages before the benefits of bilingualism can be observed. A higher level of proficiency in the first language is more likely to contribute to the acquisition of a second language.
Threshold Hypothesis
In this sentence what is ME? John kicked the ball to me.
Object pronoun
In this sentence what is US? The politician lied to us.
Object pronoun
precedes the direct object and tells to whom or for whom the action of the verb is done and who is receiving the direct object. EX: She gave me the report. (ME)
Indirect object
was a U.S. Supreme Court case which held that a 1919 Nebraska law prohibiting the teaching of foreign languages to school children before high school unconstitutionally violated the Due Process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Meyer vs. Nebraska