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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
accommodations
providing what is needed for instruction for students with special needs or ELL students by adapting or adjusting, such as by using different instructional approaches and strategies.
acculturation
when a cultural group accepts and takes on the cultural norms of another cultural group.
additive approach
(to bilingualism) the view-point that acquisition of a second language is positive and that it does not necessitate forfeiting the first language.
assimilation
the process by which a minority group becomes a part of the majority group, changing itself and changing the group in power, too.
authenic assessments
assessments conducted in real-life settings or simulationms that are close to real life.
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)
social, conversational language.
bilingualism
comfort and facility in two languages such that individuals are users of formal and informal aspects of both languages.
class structure
defined in terms of income (low, medium, high).
Cognitie Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)
academic, abstract language that normally takes from 5 to 7 years to acquire when learning a new language.
critical pedagogy
an approach in which students learn to "question the questions," to seek their own answers, and to examine all areas critically when developing decision-making and social-action skills.
cultural relativism
the ability to view a culture as if you were a member of that culture.
culture
perceptions, beliefs, and behaviors acquired drom families and those around us; usually a function of "exposure" or socialization.
Digital Divide
difference between the "haves" and the "have-nots" in access to technologyh resources.
disability group
defines the identity of aperson who has lost or experienced reduced function of a certain body part or organ; also includes physical, cognitive, and emotional functions.
decifit model
viewing individuals who are not of one's own culture as deficient and generalizing this negative perception to all behaviors that are particular to that individual's culture.
discrimation
the use of negative responses or that absence of positive responses that denies success based on prejudiced or prejudicial outlooks, actions, or treatment.
diversity
a variety of cultures, viewpoints, tradtions, values, and needs of students in public education within the framework of American democratic
dominant culture
mainstream culture, often commanding, controlling, or prevailing over all other cultures.
English Language Learners (ELLS)
(formally referred to as LEP, or Limited English Proficient) those learning English as their second language.
empowerment
the goal of all education; encouraging full participation in decision making, encouraging and teaching self-advocacy for success, building confidence, inviting choice making, and giving credence to individual opinions.
equity
justice according to natural law or right; freedom from bias or favoritism.
ethnicity
a national heritage as well as a distinct set of customs, language system, beliefs and values, indigenous family traditions, and ceremonies.
ethnocentrism
a view of reality from one's own ehnic perspective alone and, possibility, a belief that this view is superior.
exceptionalities
attributes that make a student different from most others in the area of learning; including cognitive, physical, and socioemotional differences (for example, learning disabilities, emotional disabilities, and giftedness.)
feminization of poverty
a large segment of the population below the poverty line line that consists of female-headed households and their children.
Funds of Knowledge
benefits from knowledge and experiences of students and their families to potentially enhance school-related activities and practice.
gender bias
pertaining to preferences or preferential treatment by teachers toward males or females.
gender equity
nonpreferential treatment of males and females.
Gifted and Talented
students with identified special talents and abilities who receive special instructions.
handicap
the challenge a person experiences due to a disability.
inclusion
the notion that students with disability should be taught with their nondisabled peers in schools that are part of their community.
Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
developed for students with exceptionalities, with input from the parent, the classroom teacher, administration, specialists, and the student (when appropriate), to identify special needs; an IEP must be followed by law.
Individualized Transition Plan (ITP)
developed for students with exceptionalities who are 16 years old or older, with input from from student, parent, classroom teacher, administrator, and specialists, to identify post secondary schools.
involuntary immigrants
those whose families had no choice in coming to the United States; for example, the Africans brought as slaves prior to the Civil War.
language acquisition
the natural, gradual acquisition of language based on receiving and understanding messages, building a listening (receptive) vocabulary first, and slowly attempting verbal production of the language in a supportive environment.
learned helplessness
the lackof belief that our actions will lead to success due to expectations of failure and even acceptance of failure.
least restrictive environment (LRE)
placing students with exceptionalities in settings that allow them to function to their maximum capabilities with the maximum possible placement in a regular classroom.
mainstream culture
see dominant culture
melting pot analogy
people from different cultures and backgrounds forging a new culture and, in the process, losing their original cultural identity.
migrant workers
students who spend a few months in one school and then in another as they follow the migratory patterns of the agricultural industry.
minority
term that usually refers to an ethnic, racial, or underrepresented group that is not the majority.
modifications
changes made in instruction and assessment in response to student needs; frequently used for students with disabilities and developed by an ARD (Admission, Review, and Dismissal) committee.
monolingualism
fluency, use, and understanding of only one language.
norms
expected behaviors usually defined within the context of a culture; what is accepted as normal behavior within a specific group.
pluralism
when a minority group retains its cultural norms and does not assimilate into the dominant or majority culture, yet possesses equal status in that majority culture.
Public Law 94-112
provides for a free and appropriate education, nondiscrimatory evaluatio, and an Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all students with disabilities; later reauthorized as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).
race
refers to human groups according to their physical taits and characteristics; different and often conflicting typologies exist because human groups in modern societies are highly mixed.
salad bowl analogy
people of different cultures forming a society but retaining their individual cultural identities.
semilingualism
use of limited aspects of a single language or of two or more languages; for example, students may speak their native language well, but may not write or read it well.
socioeconomic class
a composite of occupation, educational attainment, and income.
standardized tests
establish the same content, scoring, testing conditions, and interpretation guidelines.
subtractive approach
(to bilingualism) the view-point that acquisition of the second language (in this case, English) is most successful when the development of the first language is forfeited.
Formative evaluation method designed to evaluate performance in the particular curriculum to which students are exposed.
Curriculum-based assessment
Method of evaluating a person that has been applied to a large group so that an individual's score can be compared to the norm, or average.
Standardized achievement tests
Method of evaluating a student's critical thinking and problem solving ability in real-life situations in which she may work with or receive help from peers, teachers, parents, or supervisors.
Authentic assessment
Method of teaching academics, especially reading and math that emphasizes drill and practice and immediate feedback; lessons are precisely sequenced, fast-paced, and well-rehearsed by the teacher.
Direct instruction
One's ability to understand that words are made up of sounds or phonemes.
Phonemic awareness
The study within psycholinguistics of how people use language in social situations
Pragmatics
Academic performance markedly lower than would be expected on the bases if a student's intellectual ability.
IQ-achievement discrepancy
Method of assessing reading in which the teacher has the student read progressively more difficult series of passages or word lists noting the difficulty level of the material read and the types of errors the student makes.
Informal reading inventories
The study of the meanings attached to words.
Semantics
Ability to understand what one has read.
Reading Comprehension
The study of how individual sounds make up words.
Phonology
Tendency to repeat behaviors over and over again; often found in people with brain injury as well as ADHD.
Perseveration
Refers to children who exhibit inattention, impulsivity and/or hyperactivity
ADHD
Executive function; internal language used to regulate one's behavior
Inner speech
Ability to regulate one's behavior through working memory, inner speech, control of emotions and arousal levels, and analysis of problems and communication of problem solutions to others.
Executive functions
Acting-in behavior; anxiety, fearfulness, withdrawal, and other indications of an individual's mood or internal state.
Internalizing behaviors
Disorder characterized by psychotic behavior manifested by loss of contact with reality, distorted thought processes, and abnormal perceptions.
Schizophrenia
socially inappropriate words or statements (e.g., swearing)"
Tourette’s disorder
Acting-out behavior; aggressive or disruptive behavior that is observable as behavior directed toward others.
Externalizing behaviors
Disorder characterized by overt, aggressive, disruptive behavior that is observable as behavior directed toward others.
Conduct disorder
Impairments in the ability to use speech or language to communicate
Communication disorders
Include problems in comprehension and expression
Language disorders
The study within psycholinguistics of word formation; how adding or deleting parts of a whole word changes their meaning.
Morphology
Involves errors in pronouncing words.
Articulation disorders
Alternative forms of communication that do not use the oral sounds of speech or that augment the use of speech.
Augmentative or alternative communication
Decoding or understanding messages in communication.
Receptive language
Characteristics of pitch, loudness, and/or qualities that are abusive of the larynx.
Voice disorders
Hesitations, repetitions, and other interpretations of normal speech flow that are entirely normal parts of learning to use language.
Fluency disorders
Language disorder that has no known cause
Specific language impairment
Pronouncing words with certain sounds omitted or distorted
Phonological disorders
Oral communication that involves abnormal use of the vocal apparatus, is unintelligible, or is so inferior that it draws attention to itself and causes anxiety, feelings of inadequacy, or inappropriate behavior in the speaker.
Speech disorders
Encoding or sending messages in communication
Expressive language
Children who cannot hear sounds above a certain intensity level
Deaf
Test whereby tones of various intensities and frequencies are presented to determine a person’s hearing loss.
Pure-tone audiometry
Unit of measurement of the frequency of sound; refers to the highness or lowness of a sound
Hertz (Hz)
People with only a hearing impairment.
Hard of Hearing
Inflammation of the middle ear; most common problem of the middle ear and most visits to the doctor under age six.
Otitis media
Approach for teaching students with hearing impairment that blends oral and manual techniques
Total communication
Units of relative loudness of sounds; zero decibels (dB) designates the point at which people with normal hearing can just detect sound.
Decibels
T or F: Some researchers have recommended abandoning the notion of an IQ-achievement discrepancy as a criterion for identifying leaning disabilities.
T
T or F: Children with learning disabilities can occur along with environmental disadvantage, mental retardation, or emotional disturbance; but for children to be considered learning disabled, their learning problems must be primarily the result of their learning disabilities.
F
T or F: Students with learning disabilities tend to have an external rather than an internal locus of control.
T
T or F: ADHD is recognized as its own separate category, such as learning disability and mental retardation by the federal government in the U.S.
F
T or F: Authorities in the early and mid-twentieth century attributed problems of inattention and hyperactivity to neurological problems resulting from brain damage.
T
T or F: Persons with ADHD frequently have delayed inner speech.
T
T or F: 25 to 50% of persons with ADHD also exhibit some form of emotional or behavioral disorder.
T
T or F: Stuttering is the most common speech disorder.
T
Formative evaluation method designed to evaluate performance in the particular curriculum to which students are exposed.
Curriculum-based assessment