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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Phonemes
the smallest
sounds in a spoken word; For example, the first sound or phoneme in “hat” is
/h/.
Graphemes
the letter “h”
represents the sound /h/
Pre-alphabetic Level
At this level, students become aware of the
relationship between sounds and letters.
Decoding strategies
Students may finger-point and
sound out the words, becoming more and more fluent as they read
Early Alphabetic Reading
Students at this level begin blending single
sounds into words. Most programs begin with printed words that have a
limited set of sounds, (i.e., a few consonants and one or two vowels).
Mature Alphabetic Level
students should know and be able to
decipher simple words. As they progress, students readily recognize often
repeated initial letter groupings (ch, th, sh, sl, gr) and word endings (-ing, -
ed, and –est) in orthography.
Orthography
written language
Orthographic Stage
Students continue to practice reading and are
becoming familiar with larger and more complex words and sentence
structures. They move from sounding out words, letter by letter, to learning
new words by their analogy to known words.
Ways to increase comprehension
1. Monitor comprehension
2. Use graphic or semantic organizers
3. Answer questions
4. Generate questions
5. Recognize story structure
6. Summarize
Reading assessments
1. Repeated readings
2. Echo readings
3. Wide readings
4. Choose a story kids like
5. Watch dramatizatio
5 areas of to be addressed in reading classroom
1. Phonemic awareness
2. Phonics
3. Fluency
4. Vocabulary
5. Text comprehension
Phonemic Awareness
Effective phonemic awareness instruction teaches children to notice, think about, and work with (manipulate) sounds in spoken language
Phonics
the time for phonics instruction is
kindergarten or first grade
Fluency
Oral reading is a useful tool for improving fluency; however, repetition and monitoring should be a part of the program.
Word Identification Skills
Help individuals recognize unknown words accurately
and rapidly. (phonetic analysis, structural analysis, and contextual analysis)
Root words
word from which another word is developed
Base words
stand-alone linguistic unit which cannot be deconstructed or
broken down into smaller words. Ex. “re-tell,” the base word is “tell.”
Contraction
shortened forms of two words in which a letter or letters have been deleted. These deleted letter have been replaced by anapostrophe.
Prefixes
beginning units of meaning which can be added, example: counter in counteract
Suffixes
ending units of meaning which can be “affixed” or added on to the ends of root or base words, example: -able in comfortable
Compound word
two or more base words are connected to form a new word; the meaning of the new word is in some way connected with that of the base word.
Inflectional endings
types are suffixes that impart a new meaning to the base or root word; these endings change the gender, number, tense, or form of the base or root words.
Informative connotations
definitions agreed upon by the society in which the learner operates. (Ex. a skunk is “a black and white mammal of the weasel family with a pair of perineal glands which secrete a pungent odor
Affective connotations
personal feelings a word arouses
Capitonym
word that is spelled the
same but has different meanings when it is capitalized and may or may not have different pronunciations [Ex. polish (to make shiny) and Polish (from
Poland)]
Homonyms
one of a group of words that share the same spelling and the same pronunciation but have different meanings (Ex. stalk (part of a plant) and stalk (follow/harass a person)]
Heteronyms
words spelled the same way but have different pronunciation and meaning [Ex. desert (abandon) and desert (arid region)]
Novels written about the Vietnam War
• Apocalypse Now
• Full Metal Jacket
• Platoon
• Good Morning Vietnam
• The Deer Hunter
• Born on the Fourth of July
• Hamburger Hill
Allegory
A story in verse or prose with characters representing virtues and vices. There are two meanings, symbolic and literal. John Bunyan's The Pilgrim’s
Progress is the most renowned of this genre.
Autobiography
A form of biography, but it is written by the subject him/herself
Ballad
An in medias res story told or sung, usually in verse and accompanied by music. Literary devices found in ballads include the refrain, or repeated section, and incremental repetition, or anaphora, for effect.
Biography
A form of nonfictional literature, the subject of which is the life of an
individual.
Drama
Plays – comedy, modern, or tragedy - typically in five acts. Literary devices include asides, soliloquies and the chorus representing public opinion.
Epic
Long poem usually of book length reflecting values inherent in the
generative society. Epic devices include an invocation to a Muse for inspiration,
purpose for writing, universal setting, protagonist and antagonist who possess
supernatural strength and acumen, and interventions of a God or the gods.
Epistle
A letter that is not always originally intended for public distribution, but due to the fame of the sender and/or recipient, becomes public domain
Essay
Typically a limited length prose work focusing on a topic and propounding a definite point of view and authoritative tone.
Fable
Terse tale offering up a moral or exemplum. Chaucer's “The Nun’s Priest’s Tale” is a fine example of a beast fable in which animals speak and
act characteristically human, illustrating human foibles.
Informational books and articles
Make up much of the reading of modern Americans. Magazines began to be popular in the 19th century in this country,
Legend
A traditional narrative or collection of related narratives, popularly
regarded as historically factual but actually a mixture of fact and fiction.
Myth
Stories that are more or less universally shared within a culture to explain its history and traditions.
Novel
The longest form of fictional prose containing a variety of characterizations, settings, local color and regionalism. Most have complex plots, expanded
description, and attention to detail.
Poem
The only requirement is rhythm. Sub-genres include fixed types of literature such as the sonnet, elegy, ode, pastoral, and villanelle
Romance
A highly imaginative tale set in a fantastical realm dealing with the
conflicts between heroes, villains and/or monsters.
Short Story
Typically a terse narrative, with less developmental background
about characters. May include description, author's point of view, and tone.
Comedy
The comedic form of dramatic literature is meant to amuse, and often ends happily. It uses techniques such as satire or parody, and can take many
forms, from farce to burlesque.
Tragedy
Tragedy is comedy’s other half. It is defined as a work of drama
written in either prose or poetry, telling the story of a brave, noble hero who,
because of some tragic character flaw, brings ruin upon himself. It is characterized by serious, poetic language that evokes pity and fear.
Dramatic Arc
1. Intro
2. Conflict Development
3. Climax
4. Resolution
bildungsroman
“novel of education” or “novel of
formation” and is a novel that traces the spiritual, moral, psychological, or social
development and growth of the main character from childhood to maturity.
Fiction
central character, called the protagonist, and a
character that stands in opposition, called the antagonist