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What are the disciplines that make up Social Studies
history, geography, civics and government, economics and psychology.
The disciplines that make up Social Studies are intertwined with certain standards and strands. Who Developed this system. (See Figure 3-1) page 178 of Study guide.
The National Council for the Teaching of Social Studies in 1997. The TEA (Texas Education Agency) then used these as a foundation to develop the state and social studies curriculum for k - 12.
How does TEKS organize the state curriculum for K - 12.
inductively (using a set of specific facts to make up a conclusion), from the known to the unknown.
Further explain how TEKS inductively approaches social studies.
By use of vertical alignment, children learn in this order from K - 12.

Self - Kindergarten, community, state, nation and the world.
There are 10 Social Studies Strands, Name them.
1.Culture and Culture diversity 2.Time continuity and change 3.People, places and environment 4 Individual development and identity 5 Power, authority, and governance 6 Production, distribution, and consumption 7 Science, technology, and society 8 Global connections 9 Civic ideals and practices 10 Individuals, groups and institutions.
What are the components covered in Kindergarten?
Child, Home, Family and Classroom.
>The child is an individual
>Home and families
>State and national heritage
>Patriotic holidays and the contribution of historical characters.
What are the components covered in 1st grade?
Child's relationship to the Classroom, School and Community.
>The concept of chronology developed by distinguishing among past, present and future.
>Anthems and mottoes of Texas and the United States.
What are the components covered in 2nd Grade?
Local Community
>Impact of significant individuals and events in the history of the community, state and nation.
>Concepts of time and chronology by measuring calender time by days, weeks, months and years.
>Relationship between the physical environment and human activities
>Functions of government and services that it provides.
What are the components covered in 3rd Grade?
How Individuals Change Their Communities and the World
>Past and present heroes and their contributions.
>People who overcame obstacles.
>Economic, cultural, and scientific contributions made by individuals.
What are the components covered in 4th Grade?
History of Texas
>History of Texas from its beginning to present.
>Events and individuals of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
>Human activity and physical features of regions in Texas and the Western Hemisphere.
>Native Americans in Texas and the Western Hemisphere.
>European exploration and colonization.
>Types of Native American governments.
>Characteristics of Spanish and Mexican colonial governments.
What are the components covered in 5th Grade?
United States History
>History of the United States from its early beginnings to the present
>Major events and significant individuals of the late 19th and 20th centuries including contributions of famous inventors and scientists.
>Regions of the United States that result from physical features and human activity.
>Characteristics and benefits of the free enterprise system.
>Roots of representative government
>Imp ideas in the Declaration of Independence
>Meaning of the Pledge of Allegiance
>Fundamental rights guaranteed in the Bill of Rights.
>Customs and celebrations of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups in the nation.
What are the components covered in 6th Grade?
People and Places of the Contemporary World
>Societies from the following regions in the world: Europe, Russia and the Eurasian republics, North America, Middle America, South America, Southwest Asia-North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Realm.
>Influence of individuals and groups from various cultures on selected historical and contemporary events
>Different ways of organizing economic and governmental systems.
What grades have the most trouble with Symbolic representations?
Kindergarten through 4th.
What tools are used to represent space symbolically?
Maps and Globes.
What is the purpose of using Globes for children learning at the earliest stages (Kindergarten)?
Familiarize children with the basic roundness of the earth and to begin developing a global perspective. Furthermore, to study the proportion of land and water.
A special globe is used from kindergarten to 3rd grade a special globe is used. Describe this globe and it's characteristics.
It is a simplified 12-inch globe. It uses no more than 3 colors to represent land elevations and no more than two to represent water depth. It includes only the largest rivers, cities and oceans.
Describe the Globe used by 4th and 6th graders.
it is 16 inches. Has seven colors for land elevation and 3 colors for water depth.
Map concepts taught from k - 4th.
>Stress that the globe is a small representation of the earth.
>Show how land areas and water bodies are represented on the globe.
>Identify major land and water bodies.
>Show location of the North Pole and the concept of the Northern Hemisphere, where most of the world's land is located.
>Show location of the South Pole and Southern Hemisphere, where most of the world's water is located.
>Show relationship and location of the earth in the solar system.
>Use Globe to find the continent, the country, the state, and the city were the children live.
>Encourage children to explore the globe and find places by themselves.
>Compare the size of the continents represented on a Globe with their representation on a Mercator projection - the flat representations.
Map concepts taught from 5th through 6th.
>Create and interpret maps.
>Use maps and globes to pose and answer questions.
>Locate major historical and contemporary societies on maps and globes.
>Use maps to solve real-life problems, i.e, using road maps to plan a route to a specific destination.
When are the concepts of latitude and longitude covered?
from fourth grade and up.
Why do 4th graders have trouble understanding latitudes and longitudes?
>The mathematics involved in the grid system.
>The size of the meridians of longitude and the parallels of latitude on a globe and Mercator projection look different.
>The meridians of longitude have a consistent size, but the parallels of latitude vary in size, becoming smaller as they move away from the equator.
Name an object that can be used to teach Hemisphere's.
A pumpkin is one object. It's useful because students have problems conceptualizing and separating, the Western, Eastern, Northern and Southern hemispheres.
Research in social studies involves the us of what type of inquiry?
Systematic!
What is inquiry?
Engaging children in inquiry involves the ability to acquire information from various resources. The ability to design and conduct investigations, which require students to develop an understanding of key information in social studies content.
Various resources are used in social sciences research. Name examples of these resources.
Primary and secondary sources, encyclopedias, almanac, atlases, government documents, artifacts and oral histories. Although the internet is a very fast way to look find information, the students must use caution in the reliability of the information. Other sources may include software like Where in thee World is Carmen San Diego?
Five disciplines have been described and integrated by the TEA, but teachers can go beyond this integration and add other components from other content areas. Name two components.
Literature-based approach and thematic units.
What disciplines will a literature-based approach reinforce?
Social Studies and language arts. Through the use of authentic multicultural literature, teachers can expose children to quality reading and the cultures of the many ethnic and linguistic groups in the United States.
Thematic units help teachers integrate content areas. Explain a thematic unit.
The teacher selects a theme and organize content area instruction around it. This can be done in a self-contained classroom or in a departmental format (other teachers share this information).
How will the thematic unit help ELLs?
This makes content more cognitively accessible for them. For example, in a unit on the solar system, the names of the planets and the terminology used to describe the system can be introduced and repeated in several subjects through the duration of the unit. This presentation and repetition of content in different subjects and conditions allow students the opportunity to develop English vocabulary wile learning content.
What two ways can social studies be presented visually?
Graphs and Charts.
The most commonly used graphs are:
Pictorial graphs, bar graphs, pie or circle graph and the line graph.
The pictorial graph is the most concrete because:
It uses an actual picture of the object being represented.
Why do pie graphs appear simple enough for elementary grades, what aspect of these may confuse the students?
Students need to understand thee concept of percentages to correctly interpret the meaning, and the concept of percentages is not acquired until late in the elementary grades.
How should a teacher teach students that are new to graphs?
Teachers can use real-life situations to guide students in the construction of graphs. An example, you can create a simple graph showing information about students in the class room. like the number of boys and girls in the classroom.
Research information is best explained by what type of graph.
Pie Graph
Aside from research information, a pie graph can help a teacher make inferences about a subject? Explain!
A pie representing modes of information can set up questions like. Why are so many people using pickup trucks as a mode of transportation?
Explain the strength of charts!
Charts can be used to record information and present ideas in a concise way, and are ideal for promoting concept formation in a concrete fashion.
Name 5 types of charts.
Data retrieval, narrative, tabulation or classification, pedigree and organizational chart.
Data retrieval charts are used how.
To gather and keep track of data gathered from research, observation or experimentation. It is construced to allow the easy comparison of two or more sets of data. (See table 3-1 on page 185)
How do Narrative charts show events?
They show events in a sequence. Example, a student can develop charts showing the steps in making their favorite dishes, a time line of a child's personal history.
When approaching narrative charts with K - 2 students what approach should teachers take?
Initial exposure to time lines should begin with things that they did yesterday, things they are doing today and things that will be done tomorrow. (see example Table 3-4 p. 186)
Explain a tabulation or classification chart.
It provides orderly columnar display of info for comparison. (see example Table 3-2 p. 186)
A pedigree chart shows:
The origin and development of something. Pedigree line for a purebred dog or development of a political pary.
A flowchart shows:
a process involving changes at certain points. (See Figuere 3-7 p. 188)
English language learners (ELL) can find social studies challenging and often need modified instruction. Certain text books have been written for this purpose. Name some books for this and their characteristics.
Titles: Adventure Tales of America, Jody Potts (1994) or Avenues, Hampton Brown (Schifini et al. 2004). These books use cartoons, illustrations, concrete time lines that give the fundamental meanings of important concepts from which teachers can develop lessons.
Why is the integration of content and language crucial for ELL's?
It's effective to promote content area mastery and language developement.
What are cognates and suffixes?
>Cognates: words that are similar in two languages. Most of the sophisticated English words in the content areas and especially in social studies are cognates of Spanish and other Western Languages. (See Table 3-3, p. 189)
What other purpose to Cognates and suffixes have?
Teachers can use these similarities to expand the vocabulary of students and enhance content area comprehension.
Teachers need to implement a variety of activities to teach the state curriculum to ELL's at the grade level and complexity required of native English speakers. What method has been used to approach this?
Scaffolding was used to describe the way in which adults support children in their efforts to communicate in the native language.
Explain the scaffolding approach further!
much like scaffolding at a construction site, ELLs receive language support to make content cognitively accessible to them until they achieve mastery in the second language. Once the mastery is complete, language support is eliminated.
What is L1 and L2
>L1 is a students primary language.
>L2 is a students secondary language.
What is a graphic organizer?
This is a visual used to show relationships.
The most common graphic organizers are:
Semantic web or tree diagram, time line, flowchart and Venn diagram.
A semantic web or tree diagram:
shows the relationship between main ideas and superordinate components.
A time line:
presents a visual summary of chronological events and is ideal for showing historical events or events in sequence.
A flowchart:
shows cause-and-effect relationships and can be used to show steps in a process, like the process for admission to school or program.
A Venn diagram:
uses circles to compare common and unique elements of two or three distinct components, such as properties of numbers, elements of stories, or events or civilizations. (See figure 3-8, p. 190)
What is SQ4R?
a study strategy in which the learner is engaged in the entire reading process.
The acronym SQ4R stands for:
Survey, Questions, Read, Reflect, Recite, and Review.
Describe the Survey step(SQ4R)!
The reader examines the headings and major components of the text to develop predictions and generate questions.
Describe the Question step(SQ4R)!
The student answers the questions generated and establish a purpose for reading.
Describe the Read step(SQ4R)!
The student looks for answers to the questions they generated.
Describe the Reflect step(SQ4R)!
They monitor their comprehension in this stage (Write a summary)
Describe the Recite step(SQ4R)!
Recite the content they learned.
Describe the Review step(SQ4R)!
Evaluate how much they learned about he content.
An instructional approach designed to make content comprehensive for ELL's is:

(A strategy to integrate language arts and social studies)
Sheltered English, Echevarria, Vogt, and Short 2000)
(Ell's) Explain the Sheltered English approach.
In the program, children are "sheltered" from the pressure of competing with native English learners. To deliver comprehensible input, content instruction is linguistically simplified through contextualized instruction, visual aids, hands-on activities, and body language.
Sheltered English strategies teachers can use to modify language to make it comprehensible are listed here.
>Control the length and complexity of the sentences.
>Introduce technical vocabulary before beginning the lesson.
>Use repetition, restatement, and paraphrasing to clarify concepts.
>Control the speed of delivery, and use a different type of intonation to emphasize important concepts.
>Help students use drawings and graphic organizers to visualize world problems and experiments, and as tools for communications.
>Guide students in using role-play to represent important concepts.
>Use linguistic modifications, such as repetition and pause during speech.
>Make the presentation of content more interactive with comprehensive checks.
>Use cooperative learning strategies.
>Organize content around thematic units.
>Use graphic organizers to simplify and chunk content.
>Emphasize the gist of concepts instead of details.
(ELL's) Sheltered English is most effective when:
the students are from many language groups and are at least at the intermediate level of English language development.
(ELL's) Academic Vocabulary in Social Studies is:
the vocabulary needed to understand the concepts of school. It is the vocabulary of teaching and learning. Marzoano and Pickering, 2005, emphasize the importance of teaching academic vocabulary to ELL's and recommend a six step systematic approach that includes direct instructions as well as practice and reinforcement.
The steps for teaching academic vocabulary are:
>The teacher provides a description, explanations, or example of the new term.
>Students restate the description, example, or explanation in their own words.
>Students create a representation of the word by drawing a picture, symbol, or graphic of the word.
>Students periodically participate in activities that help to add to their knowledge of the terms.
>Students discuss terms with one another.
>Students participate in games and activities that reinforce the new term.
A teaching strategy designed to create a low anxiety learning environment in which students work together in small groups to achieve instructional goals. As a result of instructional arrangement, students with different levels of ability or language development work collaboratively to support each other to ensure that each member masters the objectives of the lesson.
Cooperative Learning.
The steps for Cooperative learning are:
>Present Goals
>Present Information
>Organize Students into Learning Teams-
>Assist Teamwork and Study
>Test Students on the Content
>Provide Recognition
The cooperative nature of Cooperative Learning can also be further enhanced with what specialized methods?
>Student Teams Achievement Methods (STAD)
>Group Investigation
>Think-Pair-Share
>Numbered Heads Together
What are the steps of (STAD) Student Teams Achievement Methods?
>The teacher presents new academic information to students
>Students are divided into four or five member learning teams
>Team member master the content and then help each other learn the material through tutoring, quizzing one another, or carrying on team discussions.
>Each student receives an improvement score that helps show the growth he or she made.
>Daily or weekly quizzes are given to assess mastery.
>Each week, through newsletters or a short ceremony, groups and individual students are recognized for showing the most improvement.
Group investigation:
>Students select a subtopic within a general area
>Divide the class into small groups, composed of two to six students. It should be ethnically and academically heterogeneous.
>The students and the teacher plan specific learning procedures, tasks and goals.
>Students carry out the plan using various sources. The teacher monitors the process and offers assistance as needed.
>The students analyze and evaluate information and plan how they can summarize it in an interesting fashion for possible display or presentation to the class as a whole.
>The students present their final product.
>The teacher conducts individual or group evaluation.
Think-Pair-Share was developed as a result of what?
Wait-time research. This suggest that pausing for a few seconds to allow children to reflect on the question can improve the quality of the response and the overall performance of children.
Think-Pair-Share steps:
>Think-The teacher poses a question and asks students to spend a minute thinking alone about the answer. No talking or walking is allowed.
>Pair-Students pair off and discuss what they have been thinking about, sharing possible answers or information.
>Share-Students share their answer with the whole class. The teacher goes around the classroom from pair to pair until a fourth or a half of the class has a chance to report.
Numbered Heads together: (designed to involve more students in the review of materials covered in class.
>Number-divide the students into teams with three to five members each and assign a number to each member.
>Question-teacher asks question
>Heads together-Students put their heads together to figure out the answer and to be sure everyone knows the answer.
>Answer-teacher calls a number and students from each group with that number raise their hands and provide the answer.
The teacher understand and applies knowledge of significant historical events and developments, multiple historical interpretations and ideas, and relationships between the past, the present, and the future is a definition of what competency according to TEKS.
History
Group investigation:
>Students select a subtopic within a general area
>Divide the class into small groups, composed of two to six students. It should be ethnically and academically heterogeneous.
>The students and the teacher plan specific learning procedures, tasks and goals.
>Students carry out the plan using various sources. The teacher monitors the process and offers assistance as needed.
>The students analyze and evaluate information and plan how they can summarize it in an interesting fashion for possible display or presentation to the class as a whole.
>The students present their final product.
>The teacher conducts individual or group evaluation.
Think-Pair-Share was developed as a result of what?
Wait-time research. This suggest that pausing for a few seconds to allow children to reflect on the question can improve the quality of the response and the overall performance of children.
Think-Pair-Share steps:
>Think-The teacher poses a question and asks students to spend a minute thinking alone about the answer. No talking or walking is allowed.
>Pair-Students pair off and discuss what they have been thinking about, sharing possible answers or information.
>Share-Students share their answer with the whole class. The teacher goes around the classroom from pair to pair until a fourth or a half of the class has a chance to report.
Numbered Heads together: (designed to involve more students in the review of materials covered in class.
>Number-divide the students into teams with three to five members each and assign a number to each member.
>Question-teacher asks question
>Heads together-Students put their heads together to figure out the answer and to be sure everyone knows the answer.
>Answer-teacher calls a number and students from each group with that number raise their hands and provide the answer.
The teacher understand and applies knowledge of significant historical events and developments, multiple historical interpretations and ideas, and relationships between the past, the present, and the future is a definition of what competency according to TEKS.
History
The history of the world can be divided into five periods:
>The ancient world
>The Middle Ages
>The Age of Discovery
>Revolution and Industry
Modern World
(Ganeri, martell, and Willians 1999)
What was the time period of The Ancient Word?
4 Million Years to 500 CE
The study of the Ancient World focus's on the development of what?
The first humans, first farmers and first civilizations.
What civilizations are emphasized in the study of the Ancient World?
Mesopatamia, Sumer, Assyria, Babylon, Egypt, the Indus Valley, megalith Europe, ancient China, Phoenicia, ancient America, ancient Greece, the Celts, the romans, and empires in Africa and India.
Time Line of the Ancient World
4000 Homo sapiens appear in various regions in the world.
3500 The Sumerians of Mesopotamia invent writing and the wheel.
3100 Egypt becomes unified
2800 Building begins in Stonehenge, England
2500 Indus civilization flourishes in India
1600-1100 Mycenaean control of Greece
1200-1400 Olmec civilization flourishes in western Mexico
1000-612 New Assyrian Empire flourishes
753 Foundation of Rome
605-562 King Nebuchadnezzar rebuilds the city of Babylon
476-431 Golden age of Athens
336-323 Alexander the Great rules the world
27bce to 14 ce Augustus rules as the first Roman emperor.
476 Western Roman Empire falls
What is the period of history from (500 - 1400 ce)?
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages focus's on what civilizations?
Byzantine civilization, the rise of Islam, civilization of the Americas, the Vikings, the feudal system, the Crusades, Genghis Khan and China, the African kingdoms and the Hundred Years' war.
Time Line for the Middle Ages:
500 Eastern Roan (Byzantine Empire at its peak.
600 Teotihuacan civilization floureshes in Mexico
600 Rise of Islam
700 Mayan civilization at its height in Central America
700 Feudal system begins in Europe; peasants serve a lord in exchange for protection
711 Moors invade Spain
750 Abbasid dynasty is founded; Arab Empire at its peak
800 Charlemagne crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
900 rise of Toltec civilization in Mexico
1000 Vikings land in North America
1095 Muslim Turks take Jerusalem and ban Christian pilgrims from the city.
1096-1270 Crusades try to rescue Jerusalem from the Muslims
1215 Genghis Khan and Mongol invade China
1271 Marco Polo travels to China from Italy
1300 Renaissance begins in Europe
1325 Aztecs established Tenochtitlan near modern day Mexico City.
1368 Foundation of the Ming dynasty in China
1453 Fall of the eastern Roman Empire (Constantinople)
1454 Gutenberg invents the printing machine
1500 Inca Empire at its peak in Peru
What is the period of history from (1400-1700)?
Age of Discovery
The period of the Age of Discovery recognizes:
Renaissance, the development of the Aztec and Inca civilizations, voyage of discovery from Spain and Portugal. African empires, the Reformation, the Ottoman Empire, and the Ming dynasty in the slave trade.
Time Line for the Age of Discover
1441 Portuguese begin slave trade from Africa to Europe
1448 Portuguese explorers reach the southern part of Africa.
1492 Columbus sails from Spain to America.
1492 Spain become unified and expels the Moors.
1497 Portuguese reach India
1517 Martin Luther begins the religious Reformation in Europe
1520 Suleiman rules the Ottoman Empire
1522 Magellan travels around the world.
1535 Spain completes the conquest of the Aztecs in Mexico and the Incas in Peru
1543 Copernicus suggest that the sun in the center of the universe , not the earth.
1571 Europeans defeat the Muslim Ottomans in the battle of Lepanto
1588 England defeats the Spanish Armada and become the greatest naval power in the world.
1607 England begins the colonization of North America.
1609 Galileo uses a new invention, the telescope, to study the universe
1618 Thirty Years' War begins
What period of history began in 1700 and ended in 1900?
Revolution and Industry
What topics are studied for the Revolution and Industrial Age?
Russian Empire, the Manchu dynasty in China, the period of Enlightenment in Europe, the growth of Australia and Prussia, the birth of the United States, the French Revolution, the Napoleonic era, the Industrial Revolution, the British Empire, the American Civil War and the unification of Italy and Germany
Time Line for the Age of Revolution and Industry:
1644 The Manchu overthrow the Ming dynasty of China
1682-1725 Peter the Great rules Russia
1740 Frederick the Great becomes king of Prussia-Domination of Europe
1756-63 Seven Years' War ensues, with France, Austria, and Russia clashing against Prussia and England.
1768 James Cook visits regions in the Pacific
1776 America declares independence from England
1789 French Revolution begins with the fall of the Bastille in Paris
1791 As part of the Enlightenment period, Thomas Paine publishes "The Right of Man"
1804 Napoleon declares himself emperor of France, beginning the Napoleonic Era.
1808 Wars for independence begin in Spanish America
1837-1901 British Empire at its peak under Queen Victoria
1848 Year of Revolution in all Europe
1861-65 American Civil War
1869 Union Pacific Railroad links the East and West coast of the United States.
The era of the Modern World (1900-Present) covers what material!
Struggle for equal rights for women, World War 1, the Russian Revolution, the Great Depression, the rise of fascism, revolution in China, World War II, Israel versus Palestine, the Cold War, the space race, the Korean and Vietnam wars and globalization.
Time Line of the Modern World
1914 Wold War 1
1917 Russian Revolution starts when the Bolsheviks, led by Lenin, seize power from Czar Nicholas II
1918 World War 1 ends in ruins and Germany punished.
1929 Great Depression begins in US.
1933 Adolf Hitler achieves power in Germany
1936-39 Spanish civil War brings Fransisco to power.
1939 World War 2 begins when Germany invades Poland and Czechoslovakia
1941 Untied States enters WW 2
1945 Germany and Japan surrender ending WW2
1947 Pakistan and India obtain independence from Great Britain
1948-49 State of Israel is founded Palestine, and the Arabs declare war
1949 Communist Mao Zedong (Tse-Tung) gains control of China
1959 Cuban Revolution
1960 Many countries in Africa gain independence
1965-72 America participates in Vietnam war
1969 Neil Armstrong lands on the moon
1990 Germany is reunited
1991 Soviet Union collapses, and the Cold War ends
1994 Free elections in South Africa and the end of apartheid
2001 9/11 Terrorist attack
2001 War in Afghanistan against the Taliban.
2003 War in Iraq
Details about the 5 historical periods can be found at the following website. This is a good study guide.
www.historyforkids.org. and www.angelfire.com/ca/humanorigins
A major era for modern civilization began in 1769 and continues today. What era is this?
The Industrial Revolution and Modern Technology.
Characterize the Industrial Revolution and Modern Technology era.
Inventions made mining of fossil fuel (charcoal) easier provided the energy needed to expand and promote industrial development. Improvement on the steam engine and industrial machines led to the mass production of goods and better distribution centers. The economic growth motivated people to leave the rural areas and move to the cities.
Time line for the Industrial and Technological Development.
1769 Richard Arkwright patents the spinning machine powered by a waterwheel
1810 German, Frederick Koenig, invents and improves printing press.
1831 American, Cyrus H. McCormick, invents the Reper
1836 Samuel colt invents the first revolver.
1837-1938 Samuel Morse invents the telegraph and Morse code
1846 Ascanio Sobrero, Italian Chemist, invents nitroglycerin.
1856 Louis Pasteur invents the process of pasteurization
1858 Jean Lenoir invents an internal combustion engine
1866 Albert Nobel invents dynamite
1876 Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone.
1885 Gottlieb Daimler invents the first gas engine motorcycle
1900 Ferdinand Von Zepplin invents a hot air balloon called the Zepplin.
1903 The Wright brothers invent the first gas-powered airplane
1905 Albert Einstein publishes the theory of relativity: E = mc2
1914 Henry Ford introduces the assembly line and begins building the first American Car.
1928 Biologist Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin
1930 Vannevar Bush at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston invents the analog computer.
1940 Peter Goldmark invents modern color television
1946 The A-Bomb is invented
1952 The Hydrogen Bomb is invented
1955 The antibiotic tetracycline is invented
1959 Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce invent the microchip
1969 The predecessor of the Internet, called the ARPAnet, is invented
1971 Ray Tomlinson invents Internet-Based E-mail.
1985 Microsoft invents the windows program
1988 Digital cellular phones are invented
1990 Tim Berners-Lee created the Internet Protocol HTTP and the World Wide Web language HTML.
Time Line of the Modern World
1914 Wold War 1
1917 Russian Revolution starts when the Bolsheviks, led by Lenin, seize power from Czar Nicholas II
1918 World War 1 ends in ruins and Germany punished.
1929 Great Depression begins in US.
1933 Adolf Hitler achieves power in Germany
1936-39 Spanish civil War brings Fransisco to power.
1939 World War 2 begins when Germany invades Poland and Czechoslovakia
1941 Untied States enters WW 2
1945 Germany and Japan surrender ending WW2
1947 Pakistan and India obtain independence from Great Britain
1948-49 State of Israel is founded Palestine, and the Arabs declare war
1949 Communist Mao Zedong (Tse-Tung) gains control of China
1959 Cuban Revolution
1960 Many countries in Africa gain independence
1965-72 America participates in Vietnam war
1969 Neil Armstrong lands on the moon
1990 Germany is reunited
1991 Soviet Union collapses, and the Cold War ends
1994 Free elections in South Africa and the end of apartheid
2001 9/11 Terrorist attack
2001 War in Afghanistan against the Taliban.
2003 War in Iraq
Details about the 5 historical periods can be found at the following website. This is a good study guide.
www.historyforkids.org. and www.angelfire.com/ca/humanorigins
A major era for modern civilization began in 1769 and continues today. What era is this?
The Industrial Revolution and Modern Technology.
Characterize the Industrial Revolution and Modern Technology era.
Inventions made mining of fossil fuel (charcoal) easier provided the energy needed to expand and promote industrial development. Improvement on the steam engine and industrial machines led to the mass production of goods and better distribution centers. The economic growth motivated people to leave the rural areas and move to the cities.
Time line for the Industrial and Technological Development.
1769 Richard Arkwright patents the spinning machine powered by a waterwheel
1810 German, Frederick Koenig, invents and improves printing press.
1831 American, Cyrus H. McCormick, invents the Reper
1836 Samuel colt invents the first revolver.
1837-1938 Samuel Morse invents the telegraph and Morse code
1846 Ascanio Sobrero, Italian Chemist, invents nitroglycerin.
1856 Louis Pasteur invents the process of pasteurization
1858 Jean Lenoir invents an internal combustion engine
1866 Albert Nobel invents dynamite
1876 Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone.
1885 Gottlieb Daimler invents the first gas engine motorcycle
1900 Ferdinand Von Zepplin invents a hot air balloon called the Zepplin.
1903 The Wright brothers invent the first gas-powered airplane
1905 Albert Einstein publishes the theory of relativity: E = mc2
1914 Henry Ford introduces the assembly line and begins building the first American Car.
1928 Biologist Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin
1930 Vannevar Bush at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston invents the analog computer.
1940 Peter Goldmark invents modern color television
1946 The A-Bomb is invented
1952 The Hydrogen Bomb is invented
1955 The antibiotic tetracycline is invented
1959 Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce invent the microchip
1969 The predecessor of the Internet, called the ARPAnet, is invented
1971 Ray Tomlinson invents Internet-Based E-mail.
1985 Microsoft invents the windows program
1988 Digital cellular phones are invented
1990 Tim Berners-Lee created the Internet Protocol HTTP and the World Wide Web language HTML.
Time Line of the Modern World
1914 Wold War 1
1917 Russian Revolution starts when the Bolsheviks, led by Lenin, seize power from Czar Nicholas II
1918 World War 1 ends in ruins and Germany punished.
1929 Great Depression begins in US.
1933 Adolf Hitler achieves power in Germany
1936-39 Spanish civil War brings Fransisco to power.
1939 World War 2 begins when Germany invades Poland and Czechoslovakia
1941 Untied States enters WW 2
1945 Germany and Japan surrender ending WW2
1947 Pakistan and India obtain independence from Great Britain
1948-49 State of Israel is founded Palestine, and the Arabs declare war
1949 Communist Mao Zedong (Tse-Tung) gains control of China
1959 Cuban Revolution
1960 Many countries in Africa gain independence
1965-72 America participates in Vietnam war
1969 Neil Armstrong lands on the moon
1990 Germany is reunited
1991 Soviet Union collapses, and the Cold War ends
1994 Free elections in South Africa and the end of apartheid
2001 9/11 Terrorist attack
2001 War in Afghanistan against the Taliban.
2003 War in Iraq
Details about the 5 historical periods can be found at the following website. This is a good study guide.
www.historyforkids.org. and www.angelfire.com/ca/humanorigins
A major era for modern civilization began in 1769 and continues today. What era is this?
The Industrial Revolution and Modern Technology.
Characterize the Industrial Revolution and Modern Technology era.
Inventions made mining of fossil fuel (charcoal) easier provided the energy needed to expand and promote industrial development. Improvement on the steam engine and industrial machines led to the mass production of goods and better distribution centers. The economic growth motivated people to leave the rural areas and move to the cities.
Time line for the Industrial and Technological Development.
1769 Richard Arkwright patents the spinning machine powered by a waterwheel
1810 German, Frederick Koenig, invents and improves printing press.
1831 American, Cyrus H. McCormick, invents the Reper
1836 Samuel colt invents the first revolver.
1837-1938 Samuel Morse invents the telegraph and Morse code
1846 Ascanio Sobrero, Italian Chemist, invents nitroglycerin.
1856 Louis Pasteur invents the process of pasteurization
1858 Jean Lenoir invents an internal combustion engine
1866 Albert Nobel invents dynamite
1876 Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone.
1885 Gottlieb Daimler invents the first gas engine motorcycle
1900 Ferdinand Von Zepplin invents a hot air balloon called the Zepplin.
1903 The Wright brothers invent the first gas-powered airplane
1905 Albert Einstein publishes the theory of relativity: E = mc2
1914 Henry Ford introduces the assembly line and begins building the first American Car.
1928 Biologist Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin
1930 Vannevar Bush at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston invents the analog computer.
1940 Peter Goldmark invents modern color television
1946 The A-Bomb is invented
1952 The Hydrogen Bomb is invented
1955 The antibiotic tetracycline is invented
1959 Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce invent the microchip
1969 The predecessor of the Internet, called the ARPAnet, is invented
1971 Ray Tomlinson invents Internet-Based E-mail.
1985 Microsoft invents the windows program
1988 Digital cellular phones are invented
1990 Tim Berners-Lee created the Internet Protocol HTTP and the World Wide Web language HTML.
Name the most developed ancient civilizations in the Americas:
Mayas, Toltecs, Olmecs, Aztecs and Incas.
The earliest known advanced civilization of Mesoamerica was:
Mayas.
Name some characteristics of the Mayan culture.
Developed a highly integrated society with elaborate religious observances for which they built stone and mortar pyramids. The center of the Maya civilization was the city of Chichen Itza. They developed an elaborate calender, a system of writing, and the mathematical concept of zero. They had highly advanced knowledge of astronomy, engineering, and art.
About 1200 BCE the Olmec civilization began to flourish, what two civilizations existed in the same era?
Toltec and Zapotecs.
What characteristics did the Olmec, Toltec and Zapotecs have in common?
Developed highly sophisticated civilizations. Used ceremonial calendar and built stone pyramids for religious observances. Teotihuacan is the best known example of a religious site. Developed a partly alphabetic writing system and left codices describing their history, religion, and daily events.
In the 13th century, what Mesoamerican civilizations prospered?
Aztecs, who developed the highest degree of development in Mexico. They had a centralized government headed by a king and supported by a large army. Skilled builders and engineers, accomplished astronomers and mathematicians. Built the famous city of Tenochtitlan with many pyramids, palaces, plazas and canals. Largest population was 5 million. About 1521 the Spanish colonized the area.
This Empire existed further south of the Aztec (Mexico) area in what is Columbia today:
Inca's
Facts about the Inca civilization:
Around 1200, under the leadership of the descendants of Manco Capac, the Inca state grew to absorb other Andean communities. In 1442, the Incas began a far-reaching expansion under the command of Patchacuti. He founded the Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyu), which became the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. Known as the Children of the Sun. They were not as advanced in mathematics and sciences, had a well developed political system. They also built a monumental road system to unify the empire. Cuzco was the capital. In 1533, Spanish Conquistadores led by Francisco Pizarro conquered much of the existing Inca territory.
Their were two major groups in North America known as the:
Woodland and Mississippian peoples.
The Woodland and Mississippian peoples known as Mound builders, lined in the Great Lakes and Mississippi area:
Build burial mounds dated as early as 500 ce. The Mississippian people built flat-topped mounds as foundations for wooden temples dating from 500 Ce. The chiefs and priests of these groups lived in residences built on the top of the mounds while the rest of the population resided in houses below. These civilizations disappeared by the 14th century.
Two ancient cultures, the Ansasazi and Hohokam, occupied what area of the United States?
Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico.
Characteristics of the Ansasazi and Hohokam groups:
Anasazi developed adobe architecture consisting of individual apartments, storage areas, and a central plaza. They worked the land extensively, had highly developed system of irrigation and made cloth and baskets. The Hohokam built separate stone and timber houses around a central plaza. Neither group developed a written language. It is believed that the Anasazi built the cliff dwelling at Mesa Verde, Colorado, during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries to protect themselves.
The Anasazi settled along the Rio Grande and intermarried with the local population leading to the emergence of what people around the 15th century.
Pueblo Indians
Characteristics of the Pueblo:
Improved the architectural tradition and farming of their predecessors. They were able to produce drought-resistant corn and squash, the foundation of their diet. Survived the Spanish conquest and colonization period.
About 4500 years before the arrival of Europeans, 1600's, what civilization inhabited the area of Ontario, Canada and Upstate New York?
The Iroquois
Characteristics of The Iroquois:
They hunted and fished, but farming became the main economic activity of the group. They had a mailineal line of descent, with women doing most of the farming to support the community. Developed the Iroquois Confederation to discourage war among the groups and to provide for a common defense.
The colonization of North America began in what year and what country established this settlement and the location.
1565, the Spaniards near Jacksonville, Florida.
The English would follow the Spaniards lead about the same time as it's first settlement in North America at what location.
Roanoke, an island off the coast of North Carolina, the colony disappeared.
The Dutch were the first to settle areas in what area?
New york and New Jersey.
What was the result of this land grab by several European countries around the the early 1600's?
Numerous private companies received royal charters, or patents, permitting them to begin the colonization process of North America.
What were the 3 most successful companies to establish a colonies?
>Plymouth Company, the >Massachusetts Bay Company >London Company(first to exercise patent).(
Thirteen colonies were established on the Atlantic coastline. These colonies developed based on three types of charters:
>Corporate
>Royal
>Proprietary
These uniquely different charters were divided into 3 geographic regions:
>New England Colonies: Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire(Economy: farming and very small industries such as fishing or lumber)
>Middle Colonies: New York, New Jersey, Deleware, maryland, and Pennsylvania. (Economy: Farming, shipping, fishing and trading)
>Southern Colonies: Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia(Economy:tobacco, rice indigo and cotton plantations.
The colonies were establish in the following order:
>Virginia (1607)
>Massachusetts (1620)
>New Hamshire (1623)
>New Jersey (1623)
>New York (1624)
>Maryland (1633)
>Rhode Island (1636)
>Connecticut (1636)
>Deleware (1638)
>North Carolina (1653)
>South Carolina (1663)
>Pennsylvania (1682)
>Georgia (1732)
Virginia (1607) established by The London Company:
>Captain John Smith, leader of the colonies captured by Indians and sentenced to death, but was saved by Pocahontas. Contrary to popular belief Pocahontas married John Rolfe, a tobacco farmer from that same colony.
Massachusetts (1620) established by London Virginia Company:
Consisted of Puritans, who fled for religious persecution, and founded Plymouth. Before arriving they wrote the Mayflower Compact, a document containing rules to guide life in the community. The compact established the first type of government in North America.
Representative government began from the time the first colony in Virginia was establish. Give two example of this establishment.
The Virginia House of Burgesses and The Mayflower Compact
Explain the Virginia House of Burgesses:
the tradition of hard work, individual freedom and representative government influenced them. They believed in the right to elect the people who would represent them in important issues such as taxes. This first colonial assembly of representatives were from the Virgina Settlement. It was established in Jamestown.
The Mayflower Compact:
The pledge to consult one another to make decisions and to act by the will of the majority. It is one of the earliest agreements to establish a political body and to give that political body the power to act for the good of the colony.
What is the difference between Indentured Servitude and Permanent Slavery?
Indentured servitude was a process were a person would sell him or herself to an agent or ship captain before leaving England, In turn, the contract would be sold to a buyer in the colonies to recover the cost of passage. Once the debt was paid through service, the servant often remained as a salaried worker and sometimes given land. African Americans were purchased and not afforded these rights.
During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries people began questioning religious dogmas and emphasizing scientific reasoning and knowledge, as a result of modern chemistry and biology. People also began questioning governments and started searching for individual freedom. What is the period referred to as?
The enlightenment!
What was the main reason for the American Revolution?
Economics.
What system had the English established to exploit the colonies?
The mercantilism system.
>The wealth of the nation is measured in terms of commodities accrued, especially gold and silver.
>Economic activities can increase the power and control of the national government.
>The colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country
Although the mercantillism system had been established for a century, it was not the final reason for the American Revolution. What was the final reason for the war?
The cost of the French and Indian War, which was the North American portion of the Seven years' War, had emptied the British coffers and they needed money. They implemented a new taxation system that was unbearable and the colonist boycotted the government of King George.
King George responded to the perceived civil disobedience by sending troops to Boston and they clashed with the colonist. Several colonist were killed. What is this event known as?
The Boston Massacre
One of the most well known Boycotts in US History is:
The Boston Tea Party.
How many Continental Congress's (congress of the 13 colonies) were there?
2, the fist and Second Continental Congress.
Second Continental Congress:
Intervened after the first attempt that had been made after events in Massachusetts. they met in Philadelphia to discuss preparations for war and to elect George Washington, General of the American forces. Thomas Jefferson prepared the Declaration of Independence, which was signed on July 4, 1776.
What did the Declaration of Independence do?
>Pronounced the colonies free
>Consisted of a preamble (Intro) followed by three Main Parts
>1st, stressed unalienable rights and liberties that belong to all people from birth, 2nd, specified grievances and injustices committed by Brittan, 3rd, announce the colonies as the United States of America.
For a read through of specific Revolutionary events go to:
www.multied.com/Revolt/index.html
The Americans needed the help of what country to claim victory over the British?
The French,
Yorktown, Virginia in 1781 what occurred:
The final battle to end the war.
In 1783, a treaty was signed giving independence to the new nation. What is this treaty?
The Treaty of Paris
A transition period between the Deceleration of Independence and the United States Constitution existed.
The Second Continental Congress ran the government.
After independence was achieved, the Second Continental Congress established the:
Article of Confederation.(1783-1789)
The Articles of Confederation:
Defined a new form of government composed of representatives from thirteen independent states with limited power. The congress could not declare war or raise an army. They could ask the states for money or for soldiers, but it was up to the states to agree to proved them. Each state also printed its own money and imposed taxes on imports from other states. The new government provided for a common citizenship - citizens of the United States. It organized a uniform system of weights and measurements and the postal service. It was the law of the land until 1789.
The American government needed a revision to bolster it's strength. To address these concerns, they held a Constitutional Convention where and when:
Philadelphia in 1787. From this convention the work began for the United States Constitution.
The United States Constitution was ratified by the colonies in:
1788 and in 1789 George Washington was the first president. The republic defined by the Constitution was composed of three branches.
Name the three branches of the US Constitution:
Executive, Legislative, Judicial and implemented a system of checks and balances. To learn more about "A Chronology of U.S. Historical Documents," www.law.ou.edu/hist
Up until 1823, European Countries flirted with colonization in other parts of North America. What doctrine made clear to European countries that the United Sates was not going to permit the establishment of colonies in the Western Hemisphere. Also banned European countries from attacking new American republics. Furthermore, the U.S. would not become involved in European affairs. This concept is know as "America for Americans".
Monroe Doctrine (1823 - President Monroe)
President James K. Polk (1844) declared that the United States would eventually become a world power and expand to its natural borders. Pacific to the West and Mexico to the south. What is this referred to as?
Manifest Destiny
The first African Slaves came to the Americas in 1619. Who brought them over and to what colony.
The Dutch, Virginia.
Prohibition of slaves began in the Northern United States:
The North began regulating and eventually prohibiting slavery in 1774. By 1804, New York and New Jersey had passed gradual emancipation laws, as the slavery grew to the South.
What major legislation was passed by Abraham Lincoln that granted freedom to slaves in the south.
The Emancipation Proclamation, 1862
The 13th amendment
abolished slavery.
The Fourteenth Amendment:
gave Africans full citizenship., 1866
The Fifteen Amendment:
granted voting rights to black men.
What was the primary reason for the Norther States (prior to civil war) to turn away from slavery?
Economics, the North became more urban and industrialized than the South, and northern states received large numbers of immigrants who provided the labor.
Why was Slavery an economic necessity for the Southern States.
They received few immigrants and ere mostly rural and less industrial, therefore slavery was a necessity to compete with the North.
The 1860 elections were primarily focused around economics, expansionism and (Slavery). Who were the candidates?
The southern Democrats backed pro slavery candidate, John C. Breckenridge of Kentucky, and the Republican Party back Abraham Lincoln (Anti-Slavery). The election of Abraham Lincoln triggered the immediate succession of the South.
The Confederacy is:
The southern states known as the Confederate Sates of America and selected Jefferson Davis as president.
One of the most memorable battles in the Civil War was the:
Battle of Gettysburg, 1863. More than 50000 soldiers from the North and South wee dead.
As a result of the Battle of Gettysburg, President Lincoln would later address the nation with what famous speech:
The Gettysburg Address
What Year did the civil war end?
1865, General Robert E. Lee, surrendered to General Ulysses's S. Grant.
Lincoln Assassinated:
1865
Black Codes.
Codes passed by Southern legislatures to control former slaves.
U.S. Congress in 1867, composed entirely of northerners, passed legislation to eliminate these codes. They further required the Southern states that wanted to rejoin the Union to:
Ratify the Fourteenth Amendment (Citizenship granted to Blacks).
The final two states to rejoin the Union after the Civil War were:
Texas and Florida (1870)
Although Black Codes had been nullified by Congress, these laws did control the progress of African Americans for many years:
Jim Crow laws.
Describe the economic development after the Civil War.
New inventions, together with the development of the railroad, paved the way to economic recovery. This reconstruction was vital for the development of the Untied Sates a a solid economic industrial nation.
The first 10 amendments of the U.S. Constitution are known as:
Bill of Rights
Plessy V. Ferguson, 1896
legalized segregation, allowing "separate but equal facilities" for balck and white students.
Events that marked the beginning of the Civil Rights Movement.
>1947, Jackie Robinson,
>1948 President Trumen ordered the integration of the armed forces and introduced civil rights legislation in Congress.
>1954, the Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education o Topeka found that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional.
>1955, The Montgomery Bus Boycott, Rosa Parks respected citizen of Montgomery, Alabama reused to give up her seat on the bus for a white man. She was arrested (Jim Crow laws). Her action
The Montgomery Bus Boycott
>1955, The Montgomery Bus Boycott, Rosa Parks respected citizen of Montgomery, Alabama reused to give up her seat on the bus for a white man. She was arrested (Jim Crow laws). Her actions prompted local community leaders of the NAACP to form the Montgomery Improvement Association.
Who was the leader of the Montgomery Improvement Association and what did they achieve?
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. led the charge to boycott the Montgomery bus company in 1956. Just one year later the U.S. Supreme Court ruled segregation on buses unconstitutional. This would mark the beginning of Dr. Martin Luther King as the leader of the Civil Rights Movement.
Dr. King founded the (SCLC)
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
What year did the famous "I Have a Dream" speak occur?
1964.
Dr. King was assassinated in:
1968, and he will be known for his work on the official Civil Rights Act in 1964.
Read the following pages
216-221
History of Texas, Pre-European Colonization.
Native American groups inhabited the coastal plains, the Coahuiltecans, Karankawas and Caddos. (food gatherers, fisherman and farmers).
How did Texas get it's name?
When the Spanish first came to Texas they made contact with the Caddos (peaceful indians). The Caddos identified themselves with the word taysha, (means-"friend" or "ally"). The Spanish thought they were referring to the area. Thus, the name Texas and the state motto "Friendship" emerged.
Two other groups of indians tribes in Texas were:
Comanches and Apaches. They coexisted with the Europeans, but resisted colonization efforts.
What did the Europeans introduce to the Apache and Comanche that changed their culture?
They became fearless warriors and successful buffalo hunters. This allowed the development of the culture of the buffalo. This allowed the development of the culture of the buffalo. When the Buffalo were annihilated, these groups became practically extinct.
The Spanish explored Texas in what year?
1528, Cabeza de Vaca and 3 companions landed in the territory. They made contact with the Caddo in what is today Houston,
What well known explorer, explored Texas in 1541?
Fracisco Vazquez de Coronado, his exploration concentrated on the reports of the mythical Seven Cities of Cibola. Cornado would make it as far as North Texas but would return home empty handed.
Juan de Onate, 1595, first to colonize New Mexico.
This would be the first European settlement west of the Mississippi.
The fist permanent settlement in Texas was established:
1682, the mission of Ysleta del Sur near El paso. The French would soon threaten the Spanish hegemony in East Texas.
Fort Saint Louis in East Texas was founded in 1682 by
Robert de la Salle. The Spanish would expel the French and establish a series of mission in East Texas.
Fort San Antonio de Valero and de Bexar near an Antonio were established by:
the Spanish in 1718, they provided protection for the settlements in East Texas.
The Spanish would loose control of the region in the early 1800's:
The Mexican's would obtain independence in 1821.
Moses Austin would get permission from the Spanish government to bring Anglo-American families to settle in Texas in what year:
1820, The agreement would be voided when Mexico took control of the territory.
Stephn F. Austin would later negotiate with the Mexican government and obtain an agreement to allow Anglo-Saxon Americans to settle in Texas.
This would result in an Anglo majority by 1835, which antagonized the Mexican's
Conflict had begun between the settlers in Texas and Mexico, because they felt that the government could not provide adequate support or proetection.
(1830) The Texans sent Stephen F. Austin to Mexico to represent the colony and negotiate with General Santa Anna, but would only get jailed for a year.
The war for Texas independence (1835) began with what battle?
Battle in Gonzalez, the Mexican's were sent to get the cannon that was given to the Texans to protect them from the Indians and the Texans refused to relinquish and fired upon the Mexican soldiers.
Sam Houston, a former governor of Tennessee, volunteered to fight for Texas and would become the:
Commander and Chief of the Texas Army
The first meaningful battles of the Texas war was in 1836. What battles were these:
Battle for the Alamo and Goliad. These battles won by Santa Anna gave the Texan's the fire they needed to put together the army that would defeat Santa Anna.
The Texas Declaration of Independence was completed a few days before the battle of the Alamo. It formed the new government for the republic of Texas. Who was the president and vice president?
David G. Burnet, President and Lorenzo de Zavala, Vice President
While the colonist were fighting at the Alamo and Goliad, general Sam Houston (gathering soldiers) had fled up to the San Jacinto river. The ensuing battle at this location would be called:
The Battle of San Jacinto, were General Santa Anna was humiliated and sent back to Mexico.
Santa Anna and President Burnet signed this treaty at the battle of San Jacinto:
Treaty of Velasco, were Santa Anna would withdrawel without being harmed as long as they would recognized Texas as a new Country. Santa Anna would not honor this agreement though.
For ten years Texas remained a republic, but what forces would bring them into the United Sates?
It was unable to secure its borders and reverse a tough financial situation. It needed the US Support.
Texas joined the Union in 1845. What was the first act by the United States for Texas?
They sent troops to the Rio Grande (The Mexicans Considered this their territory) to secure the Texas border. The ensuing clashes would result in the Mexican American War.
From 1846 to 1848 what war occurred in Texas?
The Mexican American War.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, was signed at the end of the war.
Mexico withdrew its claim over Texas and established the Rio Grande as the official border of Texas. Mexico also ceded California and the territory known today as the American Southwest to the US..
In 1901, what was discovered in East Texas:
Oil, at the Spindle top Oil Field, making cities like Houston and Dallas large urban and industrial areas
The Modern Economy of Texas relies on what resources:
agriculture, ranching and oil, but new high technology industries are rapidly overtaking these industries.
The phrase "Six flags over Texas" refers to what?
the 6 countries that exerted control in Texas from 1519 to date.
>Spain(1519-1821)
>France(1685-1690)
>Mexico(1821-1836)
>Republic of Texas(1836-1845)
>United States(1845-1861)
>Texas in the Confederacy(1861-1865)
>American Union(1870)
The state flower is:
Bluebonnet
State Bird:
Mockingbird
State tree
Pecan
State motto
Friendship
Border States:
Oklahoma, Louisiana, Arkansas, and New Mexico
State Song
Texas, Our Texas, by William J. Mash and Gladys Yoakum Wright.
Competency 021: Geography and Culture defined by the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) is:
The teacher understands and applies knowledge of geographic relationship involving people, places, and environments in Texas, the United States, and the world; and also understands and applies knowledge of cultural development, adaption, diversity, and interactions among science, technology and society.
Define Georgraphy:
the study of the earth's surface, the organisms that populate it and their interaction within the ecosystem.
Geography can be divided into two main areas:
>Physical geography- refers to the physical characteristics of the surface of the earth and how these features affect life.
>Cultural geography-deals with the interaction of humans with their environment and how that interaction produces changes.
Special Note!
Humans can alter the physical environment of the earth, but the physical environment can also shape humans and their cultures.
The two main categories of maps are:
>Reference maps
>Thematic maps
These maps show the locations of places, boundaries of countries, states, counties and towns:
Reference maps

Ex: Atlases or Road Maps
These maps show a particular topic such as population density or distribution of world religions, and physical, social, economic, political, agricultural, or economic features:
Thematic maps

>Physical maps show topography of the earth.
>Political maps show how a country is organized
The network of horizontal and vertical lines used to locate points on a map or a chart by means of coordinates:
Grid system. (the lines measure distance in degrees)
Latitude lines:
are horizontal lines that run parallel around the earth measuring the distance north and south of the equator.
The equator
divides the earth into Northern and Southern hemispheres.
Longitude Lines:
are vertical lines that run North and South going East to West.
The 0 degree line of longitude is known as the:
Prime Meridian. This line goes through Greenwich, England, Dividing The earth into East and West.
the North, South, East and West symbol on a map is known as:
Compass rose.
How are time Zones established:
Established by the lines of longitude, or meridians. Running from North to South.
Special note:
Time decreases moving from east to west. When people travel from China East to US West, they save a day. That is they might spend a day traveling by still arrive on the same calendar date.
Special Note:
The U.S. has six time zones, Eastern, Central, Mountain, Pacific, Alaska and Hawaii. Hawaii 1:00 p.m., Alaska 2:00 p.m., Pacific 3:00 p.m., Mountain 4:00 pm., Central 5:00 p.m., Eastern 6:00 p.m.
A world region can be described as:
an area of the world that shares similar, unifying cultural or physical characteristics that are different from those of surrounding areas.
How many regions have Geographers divided the world into and name them.
Ten regions; North America, Central and South America, Europe, Central Eurasia, the Middle East, North Africa, Sub-Saharan, Africa, South Asia, East Asia and Australasia.
Describe the North American continent using the rules above.
North America consists of Canada, the United States, and Mexico. It is the third largest continent, and it is located between the Arctic Circle and the Tropic of Cancer. The Europeans colonized the North American region.
Go to:
Page 233-234 to review the World Regions.
Go to: (Time Zone)
www.time.gov/about.html
Regions of the United Sates consist of 8 broad geographic divisions.
>Laurentian Highlands
>Atlantic-Gulf Coastal Plains
>Appalachian Highlands
>Interior Plains and the Great Plains
>Interior Highlands
>Rocky Mountain System
>Intermontane Plateaus
>Pacific Mountain System
Describe the Laurentian Highlands:
Extends into the northern United States and the Great Lakes area. Has Hard Winters and ag is limited.
Describe the Atlantic-Gulf Coastal Plains region:
coastal regions of the eastern and southern states. Includes New York City, Florida and Texas.
Describe the Appalachian Highlands.
encompasses the Appalachian Mountains, Adirondack Mountains and New England-the states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode island, and Vermont.
Describe the Interior Plains and the Great Plains:
the interior part of the United States. States west of the Appalachians, south great lakes and as far west as Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, and northwest Texas. Most of the Nation's wheat corn and feed crops are gown in this area.
Describe the Interior Highlands:
part of the interior continental United States. This area includes the Ozark Mountains and the states of Missouri, Arkansas, Kentucky and part of Oklahoma.
Describe the Rocky Mountain System:
in the western United Sates and Canada, extending from British Columbia to Montana, Utah, Colorado and new Mexico. The mountain range is called the Continental Divide. because it separates the eastward-flowing rivers from the westward flowing rivers. the waters that flow eastward empty into the Atlantic and those that flow westward empty into the Pacific.
Describe the Intermonane Plateaus:
large region that includes the Pacific Northwest, the Colorado Plateau, and the basins of the southwestern United States. Covers Washington, Oregon, Idaho, part of Utah, New Mexico and Arizona. Covers the areas of the Grand Canyon and Death Valley.
Describe the Pacific Mountain Systems:
covers the west coast of the United States. Extends from the Cascade Mountains in the north down the entire west coast.
Facts about Texas;
second-largest state in the US behind Alaska. Covers 268601 square miles. Contains five geographic regions with its boundaries.
Five geographic regions of Texas:
>Coastal plains, flatland: Dallas, Houston
>Central plains, flatland and hills: Fort Worth and San Angelo
>Great Plains, flatland and hill country: Midland and Texas Panhandle.
>
Largest Rivers in the World:
>The Nile
>The Amazon
>The Chang Jiang or Yangtze
This river is located in North and East Africa and is the longest river in the world. It originates in Lake Victoria in Uganda and ends in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Nile
This is the second largest (South America) and the widest river in the world. It originates in Peru and its mouth is at the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Brazil.
The Amazon
The third largest river in the world. Its source is the Tibetan Plateau and its mouth is the East china Sea.
The Chang Jiang or Yangtze
The Untied States Rivers to Note:
>The Mississippi
>The Ohio River
>The Rio Grande
>The Colorado River
>The Missouri River
The longest river in the US and 14th longest in the world. Begins in Minnesota and ends in the Gulf of Mexico.
Mississippi
Begins near Pittsburgh and runs southwest, ending in the Mississippi River on the Illinois and Missouri Borders.
Ohio River
Begins in the San Juan Mountains of southern Colorado and ends in the Gulf of Mexico. the official border of Texas.
Rio Grande
Begins in the Rocky Mountains and ends in California>
Colorado River
begins in the Rocky Mountains, flowing North first and ending the Central United Sates, in the Mississippi.
Missouri River
K2 is the:
Tallest mountain in the world
Karakoram Range, the tallest mountains in the world are located in the Himalayas, it ranges across what countries;
China, Pakistan, Nepal and Tibet.
Alaska has the 16 highest peaks in the United States
Just fact.
Read the following pages:
Page 241-245
The exchange or transmission of cultural information and lifestyles from people around the world. Example would be spread of Christianity, Sheep for Cotton.
Cultulral Diffusion. One culture gives to another and changes it's culture.
Read the following pages:
Page 245 -256