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162 Cards in this Set

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-->Decoding that is rapid, accurate and effortless

--> No inappropriate pausing, fluent reader

-->What a good reader sounds like

-->It is a general term that refers to any skilled and complex behavior that can be performed rather easily with little attention, effort or conscious awareness.

-->These skills become automatic after extended periods of training.

-->With practice and good instruction, students become automatic at word recognition, that is, retrieving words from memory, and are able to focus attention on construction meaning from the text, rather than decoding.
Differentiated Instruction
-->Relevant/challenging instruction that meets needs and interests of each learner.

-->Teach to the high skill levels and low skill levels.
Guided Reading
-->Teaching technique in which students read a chosen book at their reading level.

-->The teacher instructs a skill/strategy lesson.
Literacy Centers
-->Areas organized for independent, self-managed, student work while the teacher is working with one student or in small group.

-->More for K-3

-->What others do while teacher is in small group

-->EX: K would use magnet letters
Literature Circles
-->Small heterogeneous, student-directed literature conversation.

-->Like a book club or my bible study group.
-->Any departure from a written text.

-->EX: Substituting, Omitting, and Reversing

-->Basically a reading error
Phonemic Awareness
-->Awareness of the fact that sounds make up spoken words, being able to discriminate between different consonants and to sequence each small unit of sound (phoneme) in a word.

-->Understanding of sounds, autitory.

-->Ability to orally hear and work with the individual sound or phonemes that comprise a word

-->The ability to notice, think about and work with the individual sounds in spoken words.

-->The ability to pick out and manipulate sounds in spoken words
Reader's Theater
--> Performing part of a text orally for an audience from a script, few or no props.

-->Students use their voices, facial expressions and hand gestures to interpret characters in scripts or stories.

-->It promotes automacity
Reciprocal Teaching
-->interactive, scaffolded instruction for strengthening reading comprehension.

-->The teacher or other, leads a group of students through a text to understand it.

-->Emphasis on 4 stratagies: 1)Generating a Question (about the text they are reading)
2)Clarifying (words and sentences they don't understand)
3)Predicting (what might occur next in the text)
4)Summarazing (parts of the text)

-->Teaches comprehension skills to students.
-->The rime is the part of the syllable that begins with the vowel and comes after the onset
-->The onset is the part of the syllable that comes before the vowel; it consists of one or more consonants.
What is the Rime and Onset for the following words: FAT, CAT, and CLAY
ONSET: F and C for FAT and CAT and CL for CLAY
-->Temporary support from a teacher, parent or peer that enables the learner to succeed.

-->Give support and slowly take it away so the student can do it on their own.
Alphabetic Principal
-->The basic idea that written language is a code in which letters represent the sounds in spoken words
Irregular Sight Words
-->sight words that cannot be taught using phonics.

-->They must be taught visually not auditorily through phonics.

-->Words that don't follow they rules, must be recognized on sight.
Examples of Irregular Sight Words
--> HAVE

-->Knowledge of one's own thought process while reading.

-->Prior knowledge to apply to concpets.

-->This knowlegde enables a reader to select appropriate stregies while reading to help comprehend the text
-->Taking printed words and changing them to spoken words


-->Deciphering a new word by sounding it out
-->Spell a word

-->Opposite of Decode
-->smalles unit of speech sounds that distinguishes one word from another and can change the meaning of spoken words

-->English has about 41-44 phonemes

-->A few words such as A or OH have only one phoneme, but words have more than one though.

-->Can be two letters to make a single sound.
Break down the Phoneme of the following words:
BAT......./B/ /A/ /T/

IF..................../I/ /F/

SHOOT.........../SH/ /OO/ /T/

STOP............./S/ /T/ /O/ /P/
Emergent Literacy
-->beginning reading development
-->Types of text, mystery, historical fiction, fictin, non-fiction, biography....

-->Different themes
Phonological Awareness
-->global term that includes:
-an awareness of words with sentences
-rhyming units with in words
-syllables with in words
-phonemes with in words (phonetic awareness)
-features individual phonemes such as how the mouth, tongue, coal chords and teeth are used to produce sound

-->An umbrella term, all encompassing

-->Covers a range of understandings related to the sounds of words and word parts INCLUDING identifying and manipulating larger parts of spoken language such asw WORDS SYLLABLES, and ONSETS and RIMES.

-->It also includes phonemic awareness as well as other aspects of spoken language such as RHYMING and SYLLABICATION
EX of how beginning readers show us they have PHONEMIC AWARENESS
-->Combine or blend the seperate sounds of a word to say for example the word "/c/ /a/ /t/ - cat"
Cloze Passage
-->Reading passage of approximately 250 words, after 25th word, every 5th word is omited.

-->Comprehension strategy, like skimming
Literacy Elements
(Freytag's Pyramid)
-->Recognition of words accurately, rapidly and automatically

-->The ability to read a text accurately, quickly and with proper expression and comprehension

-->Because fluent readers do not have to concentrate on decoding words, they can fous their attention on what the text means.

-->Appropriate word per min....1st grade is about 60 words per min.
-->Manner of producing or uttering tones, especially. with the accuracy of pitch
-->Alteration in pitch or tone or the voice.
Fine Motor Skills
-->Small muscle movements: those that would occur in the finger, in coordination with the eyes.

-->Button a shirt, tie a shoe, handwritting...etc
Gross Motor Skills
-->Movement with the large muscles of the body.

-->EX: Running, jogging, hopping
The Writing Process
-->Writing in a process that invloces at least 4 distinct steps:
Bloom's Taxonomy
-->keep coming back to old learning and building on it

--> Do this with MATH
-->Strategy for reading non-fiction textbook material

-->Strategy used before, during and after reading non-fiction text.

--> Graphic organizer, forward thinking teacher.


l TO l
l l
-->Building strategies, vocabulary, experiences to be a successful reader
-->English Language Learner

-->Students whose first language is NOT English and who are in the process of learning English
Running Records
-->Teacher marks students responses while student reads aloud; miscue analysis done from record
High Frequency
-->Words that appear most often in text and speech
Choral Reading
-->Everyone reads together
--> Informal Reading Inventory

-->Selections for students to read aloud to diagnose reading.

-Independent Level:
99% word recogntion
95% or higher comprehension

-Instructional Level:
90% word recognition
75% or higher comprehension

-Frustration Level:
below 90% word recognition
Below 50% comprehension
Academic English
--> The English language ability required for academic achievement in context-reduced situations, such as classroom lectures and text book reading assignments.

-->Sometimes referred to as Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)
-->The ability to recognize words correctly
Adequate Yearly Progress
-->An individual state's measure of yearly progress toward achieving state academic standards.

-->It is the minimum level of improvement that states, school distrcts and schools must achieve each year.
-->Word parts that are "fixed to" either the beginnings of words (prefixes) or the endings of words (suffixes).


it has two affixes, prefix (dis-) and a suffix (-ful)
American With Disabilities Act (ADA)
-->Gives civil rights protection to individuals with disabilities similar to those provided to individuals on the basis of race, color, sex, national origin, age and religion.

-->It guarantees equal opportunity for individuals with disabilities in public accommodations, employment, transportation, state and local government servies and telecommunications.
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)
-->Is an older name for ADHD
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
-->The inability to use skills of attention effectively.

-->Studies suggest that 5 to 10% of children, adolescents and adults my have ADHD
Base Words
-->Words from which many other words are formed.

EX: may words can be fromed from the wase word MIGRATE: migration, migrant, immigration, immigrant, migrating, migratory
Bilingual Education
-->An educational program in which two languages are used to provide content matter instruction.

-->These programs vary in their length of time, and in the amount each language is used
-->Is a consonant sequence before or after a vowel within a syllable, such as CL, BR or ST

-->It is the written language equivalent of a consonant cluster
Central Auditory Processing Disorder/Deficit (CAPD)
-->occurs when the ear and the brain do not coordinate fully.

-->A CAPD is a physical hearing impairment, but one which does not show up as hearing loss on routine screenings or an audiogram.

-->Instead it affects the hearing system beyond the ear, whose job it is to seperate a meaningful message from non-essential background sound and deliver that information with good clarity to the intellectual centers of the brain
-->Words in different languages related to the same root.

EX education (English) educacion (Spanish)
Comprehension Strategy Instruction
-->is the explicit teaching of techniques that are particularly effective for comprehending text.

-->The steps of explicit instruction include:
-TEACHER MODELING ("Think outloud"),
Direct Explaination

(Comprehensive Strategy Instruction)
-->the teacher explains to students why the strategy helps comprehension and when to apply the strategy

(Comprehensive Strategy Instructions)
-->The teacher models, or demostrates, how to apply the strategy, usually by "thinking aloud" while reading the text that the students are using.

(Comprehensive Strategy Instructions)
-->The teacher guides and assists students as they learn how and when to apply the strategy

(Comprehensive Strategy Instruction)
-->The teacher helps students practive the strategy until they can apply it independently.
Comprehensive Strategies
-->Techniques to teach reading comprehension, incuding:
- summarization
- prediction
-inferring word meanings from context
Context Clues
-->Sources of information outside of words that readers may use to predict the identities and meanings of unkown words

-->They may be drawn from:
-the immediate sentence containing the word
- from text already read
- from pictures accompanying the text
-from definitions
-from restatements
-from examples
-from descriptions in the text.
Cooperative Learning
-->It involves students working together as partners or in small groups on clearly defined tasks

-->It has been used successfully to teach comprehension strategies in content-area subjects
Direct Vocabulary Learning
-->When students learn vocabulary through explicit instruction in both the meanings of individual words and worl-learning stategies.

-->It aides reading comprehension.
-->A language-based disability that affects both oral an dwritten language.

-->It may also be referred to as reading disability, reading difference or reading disorder.
-->English as a Second Language, an educational approach in which English language learners are instructed in the use of the English Language
-->A letter or letter combination that spells a signle phoneme.

-->In English, a grapheme may be 1, 2, 3 or 4 letters


- E
- EI
Graphic or Semantic Organizers
-->Summarize and illustrate concepts and interrelationships among concepts in a text, using diagrams or other pictorial devices.

-->They are often know as MAPS, WEBS, GRAPHS, CHARTS, FRAMES or CLUSTERS.

-->They are graphic organizers that look somewhat like a spider web where lines connect a central concept to a variety of related ideas and events
Indirect Vocabulary Learning
-->Refers to students learning the meaning of words indirectly when they hear or see the words used in many different contexts

Through conversation with adults, through being read to, and through reading extensibely on their own.
Individualized Education Program

-->Describes the special education and related services specifically designed to meet the unique educational needs of a student with a disability.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

-->a law that guarantees all children with disabilities access to a free and appropriate public education
-->Language Learning Disability

-->A disorder that may affect the comprehension and use of spoken or written language as well as nonverbal language, such as eye contact and tone of speech, in both adults and children
-->Learning Disability

-->A disorder that affects peoples ability to either interpret what they see and hear or to link information from different parts of the brain.

-->may also be referred to as a learning disorder or a learning difference
-->Limited English Proficient

-->Term used by the Federal Government, most states and local school districts to identify those students who have insufficient English to succeed in English-only classrooms.

-->Increasingly , English Language Learners (ELL) or English Learners (EL) are used in place of LEP
-->includes reading, writing and the creative and analytical acts involved in producing and comprehending text
-->Local Education Agency

-->A public board of education or other public authority within a state that maintains administrative control of public elementary or secondary schoold in a city, county, township, school district or other political subdivision of a state
Monitoring Comprehension
-->Readers who monitor their comprehension know when they understand what they read and when they do not.

-->Students are able to use appropriate "fix-up" strategies to resolve problems in comprehension
--> the smallest meaningful unit of language.

-->Can be 1 syllable (BOOK) or more than one syllable (SEVENTEEN)

-->IT can be a whole word or part of a word such as a prefix or suffix.


UNGRATEFUL contains three morphemes:

un - grate - ful
Morphemic Relationship
-->The relationship between one morpheme and another

--> in the word BOOKS:
Book is a free morpheme (it has meaning by itself) and the -s is a bound morpheme (it has meaning only when attached to a free morpheme)
-->The study of how the aspects of language structure are related to the ways words are formed from prefixes, roots and suffixes and how words are related to each other

-->Using a word's letter patterns to help determine, in part, the meaning and pronounciation of a word.

The morpheme VIS in words such as VISION and VISIBLE is from the Latin root word that means "to see"; and the AY in STAY is pronounced the same in the words GRAY and PLAY
Multiple Intelligences
-->This theory suggests that the traditional notion of intelligence, based on IQ testing, is far too limited.

->Instead, it proposes 8 different intelligences to account for a broader range of human potential in childrean and adults.

The 8 are:
Multisensory Structured Language Education
-->Uses visual, auditory and kinesthetic-tactile cues simultaneously to enhance memory and learning

-->Links are consistently made between the
-visual (what we see)
- auditory (what we hear)
-kinesthetic-tactile (what we feel)
pathways in learning to read and spell
Naming Speed
-->the rate in which a child can recite "overlearned" stimuli such as letters and signle digit numbers
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

-->Contains 4 basic reform Principals
1-stronger accountability for results
2-increased felxiblity and local control
3-expandedoptions for paretns
4-emphasis on teaching methods based on scientifically based research
Nonverbal Learning Disability
-->a neurological disorder which originates in the right hemisphere of the brain.

-->Reception of nonverbal or performance based information governed by this hemisphere is impaired in varying degrees, causing problems with visual-spatial, intuitive, organizational, evaluative and holistic processing functions
Onset-Rime Segmentation
-->It is separating a word into the onset, the consonant(s) at the start of a syllable, and the rime, the remainder of the syllable


the SW is the onset and the IFT is the rime
Oral Language Difficulties
-->A child with this may exhibit poor vocabulary, listening comprehension or grammatical abilities for his or her age
Orthograhic Knowledge
-->the understanding that the sounds in a language are represented by written or printed symbols
Orton-Gillingham (O-G)
-->a mulitsensory approach to remediating dyslexia created by Dr. Samuel Orton, a neuropsychiatrist and pathologist and Anna Gillingham an educator and psychologist.
Phoneme Addition
-->In this activity, children make a new word by adding a phoneme to an existing word.

Teacher: What word do you have if you you add /S/ to the beginning of PARK?

Children: SPARK
Phoneme Blending
-->In this activity, children learn to listen to a sequence of separately spoken phonemes, and then combine the phonemes to form a word.

Teacher: what word is /b/ /i/ /g/
Children: BIG
Phoneme Categorization
-->In this activity, children recognize the word in a set of three or four words that has the "odd" sound.

Teacher: Which word doesn't belong? "bun", "bus", "rug"
Children: "Rug" does not belong, it doesn't begin with a /b/
Phoneme Deletion
-->In this activity, children learn to recognize the word that remains when a phoneme is removed from another word.

Teacher: What is "Smile" without the /s/?
Children: "Smile without the /s/ is "Mile".
Phoneme Identity
-->in this activity, chldren learn to recognize the same sounds in different words.

Teacher: What sound is the same in "fix", "fall", and "fun"?
Children: The first sound, /f/ is the same
Phoneme Isoaltion
-->In this activity, children learn to recognize and identify individual sounds in a word.

Teacher: What is the first sound in "Van"?
Children: The first sound in "Van" is /v/.
Phoneme Segmentation
In this activity, children break a word into its separate sounds, saying each sound as they tap out or count it.

Teacher: How many sounds are in "Grab"?
Children: /g/ /r/ /a/ /b/ Four sounds
Phoneme Substitution
--> IN this activity, children substitute one phoneme for another to make a new word.

Teacher: The word "Bug". Change the /g/ to /n/. What's the new word?
Children: "Bun"
-->a form of instruction to cultivate the understanding and use of the alphabetic principle, that there is a predicatable relationship between phonemes (the sounds in the spoken language) and graphemes, the letters that represent those sounds in written language and that this information can be used to read or decode words
Analogy-Based Phonics
-->In this approach, children are taught to use parts of words they have already learned to read and decode wrods they don't know.

-->They apply this strategy when the words share similar parts in their spellings.

EX: reading "screen" by analogy to "green". Children may be taught a large set of key words for use in reading new words.
Analytic Phonics
-->In this approach, children learn to analyze letter-sound relationships in previously learned words.

-->They do not pronounce sounds in isolations
Embedded Phonics
-->Children learn vocabulary through explicit instruction on the letter-sound relationships during the reading of connected text, usually when the teacher notices that a child is struggling to read a particular word.

-->Letter-sound relationships are taught as part of sight word reading

-->If the sequence of letter-sounds is not prescribed and sequenced, but is determined by whatever words are encountered in text, then the program is not systematic or explicit
Onset-Rime Phonics Instruction
-->CHildren learn to break monosyllabic words into their onsets (consenets preceding vowel) and rimes (vowel and following consonants)

-->They read each part separately and then blend the parts to say the whole word.
Phonics Through Spelling
-->Children learn to segment words into phonemes and to make words by writing letters for phonemes
Synthetic Phonics
-->Children learn how to convert letters or letter combinations into a sequence of sounds and then how to blend the sounds together to form recognizable words
Systematic and Explicit Phonics Instruction
-->The most effective way to teach phonics

-->A program is systematic if the plan of instruction includes a carefully selected set of letter-sound relationships that are organized into a logical sequence.

-->Explicit means the programs provide teachers with precise directions for the teaching of these relationships
Print Awareness/Basic Print Concepts
-->Basic knowledge about print and how it is typically organized on a page.

EX: print conveys a meaning, print is read left to right and words are separated by spaces
Reading Disability

-->Another term for Dyslexia. It also sometimes referred to as reading disorder or reading difference
Repeated and Monitored Oral Reading
-->Students read and reread a text a certain number of times or until a certain level of fluency is reached

-->This technique has been shown to improve reading fluency and overall reading achievement.

-->Four re-readings are usually suffiecient for most students.

-->Students may also practice reading orally through the use of audiotapes, tutors, peer guidance, or other means
Social English
-->ofter referred to as "playground English" or "survival English", this is the basic language ability required for fact-to-face communication, often accompanied by gestures and relaying on context to aid understanding.

-->It is much more easily and quickly acquired than academic English, but is not sufficient to meet the cognitive and linguistic demands of an academic classroom.

-->Also referred to as Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills BICS
Speech Language Pathologist
-->an expert who can help children and adolescents who have language disorders to understand and give direction, as and answerquestions, covey ideas, and improve the language skills that lead to better academic performance.

-->An SLP can laso counsel individuals and families to understand and deal with speech and language disorders
State Education Agency
-->the agency primarily responsible for the state supervision of public elementary and secondary schools
Story Structure
-->a reader sees the way the content and events of a story are organized into a plot.

-->Students learn to identify the categories of content (setting, characters, initiating events, internal reactions, goals, attempts, and outcomes) and how this content is organized into a plot.

-->Often students recognize the way the story is organized by developing a story map.
What does the "Story Structure" stategy improve for students. What is the benifit for them?
-->It improves strudents' comprehension and memory of story content and meaning
-->a process in which a reader synthesizes the important ideas in a text.
What does teaching students to SUMMARIZE do for them?
-->Teaching students to summarize helps them generate:
-main ideas
-connect central ideas
-eliminate redundant and unnecissary information,
-remember what they read
Supplemental Services
-->Students from low-income families who are attending schools that have been identified as in need of improvement for 2 years will be eligible to receive outside tutoring or academic assistance.

-->Parents can choose the approbpriate services for their child from a list of approved providers.

-->The school district will purchase the service
-->a word part that contains a vowel or in spoken language a vowl sound

--> E-VENT
Text Comprehension
-->the reason for reading: understanding what is read, with readers reading actively(engaging in the complex process of making sense from text) and with purpose (for learning, understanding or enjoyment)
Acronym for Unified School District
-->refers to the words a reader knows

--.>4 kinds

Listening Vocabulary
--> the words a person knows when hearing them in oral speech
Speaking Vocabulary
--> the words we use when we speak
Reading Vocabulary
-->the words a person knows when seeing them in print
Writing Vocabulary
-->the words we use in writing
Word Attack
--> an aspect of reading instruction that includes intentitional strategies for learning to decode, sight read and recognize written words
Word Parts
-->Includes affixes (prefixes and suffixes), base words and word roots
Word Roots
--> words from other languages that are the origin of many English words.

-->About 60% of all English words have Latin or Greek origins
Final Position
--> Last letter


Medial Position
-->Middle letter

Initial Position
-->first letter


-->a genre

-->make believe, not true
-->a genre

-->infomation, true
-->the child is able to:

--listen to oral and written language
--use oral language
--aware of print scan picture for meaning
--recognize enviornmental print and icons
--use concepts of print
--develop book awareness
--repeat shapes and letter like formations when "writing"
--engage in writing
--spell developmentally
--relate language and visual aspects of readign and writing
--begin gaining control over print
One-to-One Correspondence
-->printed words corresponds to spoken words
Reading Rates
-->they will vary depending on the purpose set prior to starting an assignment.

-->Students identify their goal so they can adjest the rate accordingly.

-->Initial phases, the teacher should prepar the students for increasing their rates by selecting materials, which can be used to teach skimming and scanning.
--> this pattern is used to organize information in a logical order.

-->LIfe cycles lend themselves to this format.
Early Phonemic Spelling
-->becomes aware of the alphabetic principles that letters are used to represent sounds.

-->Uses abbreviated one-, or two- or three- letter spelling to represent an entire word.

-->Uses letter-name strategy to spell words
-->this skill involves reading to gain a quick overview, to get the gist of a selection or to look for main ideas.

--> Students use titles, chapter headings and subheadings to skim
-->Reading very rapidly to locate specific information such as a phone number, date or time of a particular person
--> these lessons focus on writing and reading processes.

-->They highlight some aspects of writing process:
-->Writers have free choice of topic

-->This technique is spontaneous, divergent and self sponsored
--> Used to record individual writing and reading endeavors.

-->The use of the status chart allows teachers to chart the individual progress fo students

-->This serves as a method of accountability, it alerts the teacher to individual students needs
Concept Mapping/Webbing
-->Webbing: allows students to form relationships among ideas and concepts in graphic form following listing or brainstorming
Advanced Emergent
-->The student:
-listens to a variety fo oral and written language

-retell story

-recognize the need for reading and writing in everyday life

-over generalize punctuation and capitalization
Concept of a Word
-->a word is a group of letters bounded by white space
Critical Evaluation of Literature
-->elements of fiction-narrative elements- author, style, mood, plot, characters and setting
Anticipation Guides
-->These guides help set purposes for reading:

-before reading, by making predicitions

-during reading, to find the answers

-after reading, to return to the guide and change their predictions based upon the textual reading
Transitional Spelling
-->Adheres to basic conventions of English orthography

-->Begins to use morphological and visual information in addition to phonetic information

-->may include all appropriate letters in a word but reverse some of them
Main Idea and Details
-->students identify the most important details fo the test then list supporting ideas
Wet Ink or Quick Write
--> Students write without lifting pen for a specific amount of time (2-5minutes) to aid in topic selection and fluency.

-->Topics may be chosen by students or teachers.
-->Students develop questions, which are usesd to aid in gathering information for a piece.

-->This technique may be used in the classroom or to gather information for an outside source.
-->in this group activity, ideas are rapidly recorded with all responses being accepted.

-->the goal is to discover as many ideas as possible.

-->Responses can be redefined, predictions made, or conclusions drawn after all information has been give, recorded and discussed

-->This technique will aid in topic selection
Active Preparing
-->experiences that build meaning, purpose for reading
-->correct way
--> condensing information into a shorter form is useful for demonstrating comprehension of texts
Semantic Feature Analysis
-->this graphic is used to develop:
- word meanings
- word relationships
- concepts
Compare and Contrast
-->Identify ways in which the items are different from on another

-->Students identify ways the items are alike
-->use oral and written language to think, share, and satisfy personal needs and those of specific audience, write with growing vocabulary, consider purpose and audience when revising for publication
-->is all the "stuff" that's already inside your head, like
-places you have been
-things you have doen
-books you have read

all experiences you have had that make up who you are and what you know to better understand and interact with the text
Guided Reading
-->reading instruction that allows the student to demonstrate his/her control over a text,

-->enables the teacher to group students with similar needs so that the material is neither too easy nor too difficult for anyone

-->Allows the teacher to assist students, and helps students understand that reading is a process of making meaning
-->Listing of all possible answers to a given question, concept or proposed unit of study