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192 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The study of the function of an organism is called?
physiology
All substances are made up of subatomic particles that form?
atoms
The krebs cycle occurs in __________.
mitochondria
There are _____ pairs of spinal nerves.
31
The foramen is __________.
a hole in a bone
A deep depression in a bone is know as ___________.
fossa
A line of union of bones is called __________.
suture
The liquid part of blood is known as _________.
plasma
__________ carry blood away from the heart
Arteries
__________ carry blood back to the heart.
Veins
Cavities and capsules in and around joints are lined with a connective tissue membrane called ______________.
synovial membrane
_________ acts as a lubricant between the ends of bones and in spaces of great activity and friction.
synovial fluid
All living matter is composed of a colorless, jelly-like substance called?
protoplasm
What is the name of the code of ethics used by physicians?
Hippocratic Oath
What are the five categories of tissues in the body?
Epithelial
Connective
Muscular
Nervous
Liquid
Substances that act as organic catalysts to initiate, accelerate or control specific chemical reactions in the metabolic process are called?
enzymes
What are the two phases of metabolism?
anabolism - process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones

catabolism - breaking down of larger molecules into smaller ones.
The tissue that is a thin protective layer or covering that functions in the process of absorption, excretion, secretion and protection is?
epithelial tissue
________ is the fibrous tissue between muscle bundles or forming the sheath around muscles or other structures that support nerves and blood vessels.
fascia
A group of tissues that form complex structures that perform certain functions are called?
organs
The basic unit of structure or function in the human body is?
cell
Who is know as the father of modern massage terminology?
Dr. Johann Metzger
The study of the structure of an organism is known as?
anatomy
Cells are organized into layers or groups called?
tissues
The pricipal parts of a cell are?
cytoplasm, nucleus, centrosome and cell membrane
The thin covering of the outer surface of the cytoplasm of a cell is called?
cell membrane
Which cell component divides into two parts during mitosis and moves to opposite poles of the dividing cell?
centrosome
Which cell component uses enzymes to digest foreign substances?
lysosome
Which cell component is responsible for releasing energy?
mitochondria
Which cell component contains DNA and supervises all cell activity?
nucleus
The network of sacs and canals inside a cell are known as?
endoplasmic reticulum
Cell division is known as?
mitosis
The complex chemical and physical process that takes place in living organisms where the cells are nourished and carry out their various activities is called?
metabolism
________ carry impulses toward the cell body.
Dendrites
______________ are considered the protein factory for the cell.
ribosomes
The main three layers of the skin are?
Epidermis
Dermis
Subcutaneous
What is the name of the muscle that gives us goose bumps?
arrector pili
What are the sections of the spine and how many bones are in each section?
Cervicle - 7
Thoracic - 12
Lumbar - 5
Sacrum - 1
Coccyx - 1
What is the name given to the first vertebrae on the top of the spine?
atlas (c1)
A condyle is ____________.
a small knuckle like process on a bone
The crest of a bone is ___________.
a narrow ridge-like projection
The head of a bone is _______________.
a rounded process above the neck of the bone
The ___________ Neurons originate from the periphery and carry onto the Central Nervous System.
Sensory Afferent
The _________ Nervous System is the one in which all nerves outside the brain and spinal cord reside.
Peripheral
The ___________ Neurons go from the brain to the skeletal muscle.
Motor Efferent
__________ are the structural unit of the Nervous System.
Neurons
The part of the Neuron that is conductive is the ____________.
Axon
The part of the Neuron that is receptive is the ___________.
Dendrites
__________ is the clear fluid that nourishes and protects the brain and spinal cord.
Cerebrospinal Fluid
The superficial layer of the Meninges is the __________.
Dura Matter
The spinal cord begins at ____ and ends at _______.
medulla oblongata
L2
A clot moving in the blood stream is known as _________.
an embolism
The _________ is tha largest part of the brain located at the top and front of the head.
cerebrum
The main parts of the brain stem are__________.
Midbrain
Pons
Medulla Oblongata
The part of the brain responsible for balance and muscle control is the ___________.
cerebellum
The _________ passes between the anterior and middle scalenes.
brachial plexus
The Autonomic Nervous System contains ________ and ____________ divisions.
Parasympathetic
Sympathetic
The _________ division of the Autonomic Nervous System is used for energy conservation.
Parasympathetic
In an emergency, the ______ division of the Autonomic Nervous System increases respiration, heart rate and cardiac rate.
Sympathetic
The double-layered membrane that covers the heart is called__________.
pericardium
The microscopic thin-walled vessels that use diffusion to exchange gases with the tissues are ____________.
capillaries
__________ blood circulation is where the blood flow is out of the left side of the heart to the body and back tot he heart.
Systemic
____________ circulation is where blood flows from the right side of the heart to the lungs and back to the heart.
Pulmonary
The largest vein is the ____________.
Superior Vena Cava
Plasma is approximately _____% of blood volume.
55
99% of the formed elements in blood are the ___________.
Erythrocytes
________ contain red blood cells. ____________ contain white blood cells.
Erythrocytes
Leukocytes
The main job of the _______ is to fight infection and prevent hemorrhaging.
leukocytes
Red and whit blood cells are formed in the _________.
red bone marrow
Inflammation of a vein is called ___________.
Phlebitis
Protruding, bulbous, distended superficial veins usually found in the lower legs are called _________.
varicose veins
Lymph collected from the majority of the body flows through the _________.
Thoracic (left) Duct
The ___________ drains lymph from the right side of the head, neck, chect and right arms.
Right Lymphatic Duct
The lymph node located under the armpit is the __________.
axillary node
The condition where excess fluid builds up in the interstitial spaces is known as _________.
edema
The master gland is the _________.
pituitary gland
The _________ glands are located on top of the kidneys.
adrenal
The ______ creates insulin.
pancreas
___________ is the exchange of gases.
Respiration
The vocal cords are located in the ______.
larynx
The air sacs at the end of the bronchial tree are the ________.
aveoli
The _______ plane divides the body into left and right sides.
sagittal
The _________ plane divides the body into equal left and right sides.
midsagittal
The _________plane divides the body into front and back sides.
frontal or coronal
The _______ plane divides the body into top and bottom sections.
transverse or horizontal
______ means away from the midline or point of origin.
distal
_______ means near the point of origin.
proximal
__________ means toward the head.
superior
________ means away from the head or toward the feet.
inferior
________ means situated in front of.
anterior
________ means situated in back of.
posterior
The anterior or posterior cavity consists of _________.
thoracic cavity
abdominal cavity
pelvic cavity
The subatomic particle found in the nucleus which carries a positive charge is ___________.
proton
96% of the human body is made up of what elements?
nitrogen
carbon
hydrogen
oxygen
Molecules are formed by 2 or more _______.
atoms
Negatively charges particles orbiting the nucleus are _________.
electrons
Non-charges particles found in the nucleus are ________.
neutrons
What are the 5 stages of cell mitosis?
Interphase - normal state
Prophase - Nuclear membrane disappears
Metaphase - Chromosomes line up
Anaphase - chromosomes separated
Telophase - Cytoplasm divides into 2 cells
(2 cells are back to Interphase)
The most abundant tissue in the body is _________ tissue.
connective
_______ tissue binds skin to underlying tissue.
areolar
_______ tissue stores energy and provides insulation.
Adipose
The primary mineral in bones is _______.
calcium carbonate
The loss of bone mass and minerals is called ____________.
osteoporosis
_________ is the connective tissue at the end of long bones.
Articular cartilage
__________ contains no blood vessels or nerves.
Cartilage
Bone growth takes place in the ________.
epipheseal plate
________ is the membrane that surrounds the shaft of long bones.
Periosteum
The spongy tissue at the end of long bones is _________.
epiphysis
The production of red blood cells is called ________.
hemopoesis
________ are the vertical canals that blood vessels run through within a bone.
Haversion
______ is where blood vessels and nerves penetrate compact bone.
Volkmann's canal
The shaft of a long bone is called ________.
diaphysis
The medullary cavity is lined with _______.
endosteum
There are __ cranial bones.
8
There are ___ facial bones.
14
The only bone in the body that does not articulate with other bones is the ________.
hyoid
The hyoid is part of the ___ skeleton.
axial
There are ____ axial bones and ___ appendicular bones.
80
126
A lateral curve of the spine is known as ______.
scoliosis
________ is an exaggerated curve of the spine usually in the thoracic region.
kyphosis (hunch back)
________ is an exaggerated curve of the spine usually in the lumbar region.
lordosis (sway back)
The end of the tibia is known as the ________.
medial malleolus
___ ribs articulate with the spine.
All
There are __ true ribs and __ false ribs.
7
5
C1 & C2 are what type of vertabra?
cervical
An accumulation of fatty deposits on the inner walls of the arteries is called___________________.
atherosclerosis
The Upper Respiratory System consists of the _____ and ________.
nose
pharynx
The dorsal or posterior cavity consist of ________.
cranial cavity
vertabral cavity
The junction between two Neurons is know as _______.
synapse
The largest artery is the ___________.
aorta
What are the shapes of epithelial tissue?
squamous - flat
cuboidal - cube-shaped
columnar - tall or rectangular
Who's is considered the father of medicine?
Hippocrates
________ membranes produce a watery substance that acts as a lubricant.These membranes line the body cavities.
serous
_________ contain no oxygen, while _________do carry oxygen.
arteries
veins
_________ supply blood to the capillaries.
Arterioles
__________ membranes produce thick, sticky substances that acts as a protectant and lubricant. They line the surfaces of the digestive and upper respiratory tracts.
mucous
The bones in the hand that articulate with the radius are the _______ & _________.
scaphoid
lunate
The ________ is the largest tarsal.
calcaneus
Immovable joints are know as ___________.
synarthrosis
Slightly moveable joints are called _______.
amphiarthrosis
The synarthosis joints that are between the occipital and parietal are called __________.
lamdoidal sutures
The place where the upper appendicular and the axial skeleton articulate is known as ______________.
sternoclavicular
The place where the lower appendicular and the axial skeleton articulate is known as ____________.
isiosachral
__________connects bone to bone and _______connects bone to muscle.
Ligaments
tendons
The joint in the matacarpal of the thumb is a _____ joint.
saddle
Carpals, tarsals, vertegrae and ribs have _________ joints.
gliding
Who was the fencing master and gymnastics instructor who is widely considered the father of Swedish massage?
Per Henrik Ling
Water used in its three forms (solid, liquid, vapor) in the treatment of disease or trauma is known as _______.
hydrotherapy
Contraction of the diphragm is basically for _________.
inspiration
The _____________ muscles are synergists in expiration.
internal intercostals
The ribs are depressed by which muscles?
internal intercostals
The ribs are elevated by which muscles?
external intercostals
The _________ muscles rotate the trunk.
external obliques
The ___________ muscles form the outer layer of lateral and interior abdominal wall.
external oliques
The piriformis _________ and ________ rotates the thigh
abducts
laterally
The origin of the upper trapezius is the ________.
cervical spine
The insertion of the upper trapezius is the ___________.
clavicle and acromion
The origin of the middle of the trapezius is the __________.
C7 - T5 spinous processes
The insertion of the middle trapezius is the ___________.
spine of the scapula
The origin of hte lower trapezius is the __________.
T5 - T12 spinous processes
The insertion of the lower trapezius is the _________.
spine of the scapula
The origin of Rhomboid Major is the _______.
T2- T5 spinous processes
The insertion of Rhomboid Major is the __________.
lower vertabral border of the scapula
The origin of Rhomboid Minor is the ________.
C7 - T1 spinous processes
The insertion for Rhomboid Minor is the ____________.
vertabral border of the spine of the scapula
Elevation and upward rotation of the scapula is the action of the ____________ muscle.
trapezius
The muscles that retract and rotate the scapula downward are the _____ and _________.
rhomboid major and rhomboid minor
The origin of the levator scapulae is the ______.
transverse process C1 - C4
The insertion of the levator scapulae is the ______________.
vertebral border of the scapula
The origin of the pectoralis minor is the __________.
anterior ribs 3,4,5
The insertion of the pectoralis minor is the ___________.
caracoid process
The origin of the serratus anterior is the __________.
anterior ribs 1 - 8
The insertion of the serratus anterior is the _________.
anterior aspect of the vertebral border of the scapula
The action of the levator scapulae is to elevate the ________ and to move the neck ___________.
scapula
laterally
Forward rotation and depression of the scapula are actions of the ________muscle.
pectoralis minor
The ________ muscle stabilizes the scapula and provides upward rotation and protraction of the scapula.
serratus anterior
The origin for the clavicular end of the pectoralis major mucle is the ___________.
clavicular head (medial clavicle)
The origin for the sternal end of the pectoralis major is the ___________.
sternum, costal cartilage of ribs 1 - 6
The insertion for the pectoralis major is the ______________.
lateral ridge of the bicipital groove
The action of the ___________ is the adduction, horizontal adduction, medial rotation and flexion of the humerus.
pectoralis major
The origin of the coracobrachialis is the ___________.
coracoid process of the scapula
The insertion of the coracobrachialis is the ___________.
medial humerus
Abduction, flexion and medial rotation (anterior portion), extension and lateral rotation (posterior portion)of the arm are actions of the ________ muscle.
deltoid
The origins of the deltiod are the _________.
1. lateral, anterior 1/3 of distal clavicle
2.lateral boarder of the acromion
3.scapular spine
The insertion of the deltiod is the __________.
deltoid tuberosity of humerus
The origin of the supraspinatus is the ___________.
supraspinous fossa
The insertion of the suprapsinatus is the ____________.
uppermost of three facets of the greater tubercle of humerus
The actions of the deltoid are __________.
1. abducts arm
2. flexion and medial rotation (anterior portion)
3. extension and lateral rotation (posterior portion)
The actions of the supraspinatus are ________.
1. abduction of arm (first 15-20°)
2. stabilizes glenohumeral joint
The origin of the infraspinatus is the ___________.
infraspinous fossa
The insertion of the infraspinatus is the _________.
middle facet of greater tubercle of humerus
The actions of the infraspinatus are ___________.
1. external rotation of the humerus
2. stabilizes the glenohumeral joint