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49 Cards in this Set

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Blood Functions
transports vital substances,
Protects, maintains stability of interstitial fluid, distributes heat
Blood Cells
form in red bone marrow
red - erythrocyte
white - luekocytes
Plasma
liquid portion
55% of blood
Blood Volume
varies with body size, changes in fluied concentration and changes in electrolyte concentration, amount of adipose tissue.

about 8%of body weight
5 liters
Hematocrit
mostly red blood cells
45% of blood
Buffy Coat
1% of blood
thin layer on top of hematocrit
WBC and platelets
Red Blood Cells
erythrocytes
biconcave
1/3 hemoglobin
can squeeze through capillaries
lack nuclei and mitochondria cannot divide
Red Blood Cell Production
made in red bone marrow
low blood ocygen concentration causes kidneys and liver to release erthropoietin which stimulates RBC production
Vitamin b12, folic acid, and iron necessary
Life Cycle of RBC
circulates for about 120 days
macrophages in spleen and liver destroy worn out RBC's
hemoglobin is broken down into heme and goblin
Anemia
too few RBC or hemoglobin
oxygen carrying capacity of blood decreases
aplastic anemia
bone marrow damaged
toxic chemicals
radiation
hemolytic anemia
rbc destroyed
toxic chemicals
sickle cell anemia
abnormal shape of RBC
defective gene
iron deficiency anemia
hemoglobin deficient
lack of iron
pernicious anemia
excess of immature RBC's
inability to absorb vitamin B12
White Blood Cells
leukocytes
immune system cells: protects against disease
transported in blood to site of infection
5 types
Granulocytes
granular cytoplasm
develop in red bone marrow
live for 12 hours
nuetrophils
eosinophils
basophils
Agranulocytes
without cytoplasmic granules
arise fromr ed bone marrow
differentiate in lymphatic system organs and bone marrow
lymphocytes
monocytes
Neutrophils
multi-lobed nucleus
1st to arrive at infections
phagocytic
elevated in bacterial infections
Eosinophils
bilobed nucleus
moderate allergic reactions
defend against parasitic worm infestations
1%-3% of wbcs
Basophils
release histamine
promotes inflammation
release heparin
inhibits blood clotting
less than 1% of WBC
Monocytes
largest blood cell
kidney shaped
leave bloodstream to becom marcrophages
3%-9% of WBC
elevated in typhoid fever malarin tuberculosis
Lymphocyes
about the size of RBC
large spherical nuclei
thin rims of cytoplasm
important in immuity
25%-33% of WBC
Lymphocytes T Cells
attack micro organisms, tumor cells, and transplanted cells.
Decreased in AIDS
Lymphocytes B Cells
produce antibodies
attack foreign molecules
WBC Counts
number of WBC per cubic millimeter of blood
normally 5,000-10,000
Leukopenia
low WBC count
typhoid fever, flu, measles, mumps, chicken pox, AIDS
Leukocytosis
high WBC count
acute infections, vigorous excercise, great loss of body fluids
Platelets
Thrombocytes cell fragments of megakaryocytes
no nuecleus
helps control blood loss from broken vessels
CBC
complete blood count
measures:
hemacrit and hemoglobin conc.
total RBC, WBC, and platlets per microliter of blood
differential wbc count-list percentages of different types of WBC that change w disease
plasma electrolytes
sodium
potassium
calcium
magnesium
chloride
bicarbonate
phosphate
sulfate
hemostasis
stoppage of bleeding
3 phases
Blood Vessel Spasm
triggered by pain receptors, plateslet release
smoot muscle in vessel contracts -vasospasm
lessens blood loss
provides time for other two phases
Platelet Plug Formation
triggered by exposure of platelets to collagen
platelets adhere to rough surface to form a plug
may control blood loss from small cut
Blood Coagulation
triggered by cellular damge and blood contact with foreign surfaces
blood clot form
Extrinsic Clotting MEchanism
chemical outside of blood triggers blood coagulation
triigered by thromboplastin
triggered when blood contacts damaged tissue
Intrinsic Clotting Mechanism
chemical inside blood triggers blood coagulation
triggered by hageman factor
triggered when blood contacts a foreign surface
Coagulation
forms blood clot
utilizes clotting factors
prothrombin converts to thrombin which converst to fibrinogen to fibrin - thresda form together to create mesh that traps blood cells and platelets
Blood Clots
After forming it retracts and pulls edges of broken vessel together
Platelet derived growth factor stimulates smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts to repair damaged blood vessel
plasmin digests blood clots
embolus- blood clot moving through blood
Antigens
proteins located on a persons RBC membrane
react with antibodies in plasma when matched wrongly
Type A Blood
A antigen
Anti- B antibodies
Type B
B antigen
Anti-a antibodies
Type AB blood
A and B antigens
no Antibodies
Type O
neither a nor b antigens
both anti-a and anti-b antibodies
universal donor
Agglutination
forms blood clot clumping of RBC following transfusion reaction
Rh Antigen
named after monkey
if you have Rh antigen you are Rh positive
85% of americans ar Rh+
Myeloid Leukemia
bone marrow produces too many immature granulocytes
leukemic cells crowd out other blood cells
anemia
bleeding
susceptible to infections
Lymphoid Leukemia
lymphocytes are cancerous
symptoms similar to myeloid leukemia
Treatments for Leukemia
blood transfusion
marrow transplant
anti-cancer drugs
stem cell transplants