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87 Cards in this Set

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What is Recombinant DNA
The combining of DNA from 2 different species/organisms using Restriction Enzymes
What is the procedure of Recombinant DNA?
1. Remove the DNA from the Host
2. Use specific Ristriction Enzymes to cut out the original gene from the host DNA.

-Leaves "StickyEnds*
The sequence of DNA that the enzyme recongnizes is called the...?
Recognition Site
Fliter out the old gene so that only the "... ......" remain.
end pieces..
Use the ____ restriction enzyme to "cut" out the new gene that will be _______
- same
- inserted
by using the same enzyme, we'll have the same ___________
-Sticky Ends
Mix the ___ ____ ____ with the ____ ____
-old host DNA
-new gene
Insert the NEW __________ ___ back into the host
-Recombinant DNA
Last step: Host cell will now make the (_______) the gene codes for!
protein :-)
what's the sequence for
What is a cutting site?
A specific nucleotide sequence of DNA at which a particular restriction enzyme cuts the DNA
How does a PROBE stick to the DNA?
It sticks to the DNA when you have a special order of bases you're looking at.

Where do the largest pieces of DNA end up on the gel?
Near the Top
Where do the smalled pieces of DNA end up on the gel?
Near the bottom
If there was a rapist how would bands tell you who it was?
The DNA sperm sample found in the rape victum should be an exact match as the one found on the suspect
Restriction Enzymes: do what?
Cut a specifec DNA sequence
Radioactive Probes:
Small DNA sequence that's radioactive and will stick to a complementary sequence + GLOW
what does PCR: do

hnt: Xerox Machine
Makes billions of copies of DNA sequence

--> like a xerox machine
What does a Gel Electrophoresis do?
Techinique that seperated DNA fragments by size
(what size molecules) move farther down the gel than (what size molecules)
What's the DNA sequencing technique?
Finds the exact base sequence of a gene
Cut gene out of the DNA with
-Restriction enzymes
Copy gene with ***
Make gene radioactive so we can see what?
-See it glow
You read a DNA sequence from ____ to __
bottom to top
Read this sequence:

DNA profiling:

1. Know as DNA ___________
2. Based on the idea that
no two people will....except for...
3. uses
1. fingerprinting
2. no two people will have the same DNA code except for identical twins
3. -indefication of DNA by comparison
-Show genetic relationship
Procedure: (of DNA profiling)
1. DNA is extracted from what?
2. DNA is cut using ____ to unwind and unzip the DNA, and using a _________ to cut the strand into pieces
3. a. single-stranded radioactive ____ is made.
b. ____ makes copies of the probe
c. DNA from cells is ____ with the
d. Bases on probe are ________ to
certain bases on DNA
e. Fragments with probes are now
________ and can be seen on a gel.
4. The DNA is run on a ___
1. bloode cells, skin cells, semen
2. heat, restriction enzymes
3. a.probe b.PCR c.treated d.complimentary e.radioactive
4. gel
Results of various cells are compared using a ______ which has a fragment at every size and will tell us if the gel is working properly. By comparing to the _____, we can also determind the size of fragment run on the same gel.
In a criminal case you look for an _____________ with DNA from sample left at crime scene.
an exact match
Paternity Case: looking for half the bands to match the _____ and half the bands to match _____since each parent contributes to the child's genetic makeup
Having the same number of sets of chromosomes as a germ cell or half as many a somatic cell.
Having a pair of each type of chromosome, so that the basic chromosome is doubled: Diploid somatic cells.
Means the strawberries have an extra set of chromosomes
Changes in the bases of the DNA molecule
Mutations affect the what?
genetic information
Mutations can change the proteins made by a cell or
prevent a protein from being made at all.
Point Mutations:

Affects ________
Usually called a _________

May or may not affect the protein being made
one nucelotide
Frame Shift Mutations
(Inserting or Deleting a nucleotide)

These shift the reading fram of the DNA

(remember DNA is read in groups of 3!)
Insertion- adding a nucleotide
Deletion- deleting a nucleotide

and can cause drastically different results
Change over time

DNA mutations may _______________

This trait is then ___________________________________________________

Overtime mutation can________________________________________________________

Sickle-Cell anemia is an example of this
-individual new trait
-passed onto that individuals offspring
-become part of the population

Not all mutations are harmful, infact sometimes the can....

And adaptation is something that increases the chance
-They can result in adaptation
-that the individual will survive to produce offspring
What four bases are present in DNA
adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine
What four bases are present in RNA
Adenine, guanine, uracil, cytosine
Difference between codon and an anticodon
codons are balanced groups of mRNA. Anticodons on tRNA
What carries each amino acid to the ribosome to be asembled into a protein
tRNA molecule
What is the making of mRNA from DNA called?
Where in the cell does this process occur?
The nucleus
What is the making of a sequence of amino acids from a sequence of RNA nucleotides called?
Where in the cell does translation occur
The Cytoplasm
The molecule which carries the genetic code from the nucleus to the cytoplasm for interpretation is
A short sequence of DNA which carries the instructions to make one specific protein is called a
Change in a genetic code is called
if DNA is like a ladder which two molecules of a nucleotide are found on the sides of the ladder?
The Sugar and the Phosphate
To which molecule does each base attach?
What pairs with what?
Cytosine, guanine, thymine,adenine
What is DNA made of?
What are the three parts of a nucleotide
bases, phosphate, sugar
how do nucleotides differ from each other
RNA uses uracil and not thymine
after DNA replication --% of the new DNA strand is made up of the old original DNA
whats the first step of DNA replication
unwinding of the double helix
what is the second step of DNA replication
DNA strands seperate, bases are exposed. Synthesis will be begin
What is the third step of DNA replication
what is DNA replication
before a cell divides, it needs to make 2 copies of it's DNA. This process is called DNA replication
DNA replication..
1. 'u....' and 'u...'
undwind and unzip
5-carbon sugar found in DNA is called ------- while the sugar in RNA is called -------
deoxyribose, ribose
DNA is where?
The nucleus
DNA contains information about
Change in the sequence of DNA changes what?
The Protein
Whats a Gene-?
section of DNA that codes for a protein
DNA is made of
DNA is like a what?
DNA is like a twisted ladder called a
------- -------
Sides of the lader are
----- ----- ----------
Rungs of the ladder are
Double Helix
Sugar and Phosphate
The order of bases determines the
Changing the order of bases changes the what?
Any unintentional change in the order of bases is called a
Subunits that make up nucelic acids are
The nitrogenous base that is found in RNA but not in DNA is
The DNA molecule has how many strands?
Each strand of DNA is a long chain of ______ units
Strands of DNA are held together by hydrogen bonds between the
nitrogenous bases
Why can DNA never leave the nucleus
It's to big
the m in mRNA stands for what?
Where are these mRNA nucelotides coming from?
the cytoplasm
RNA is (what stranded)
the mRNA leaves the nucleus (Unlike the DNA) because
one stranded
the job of the ribosome is to
make proteins
the t in tRNA stands for