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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Small Intestine Overview
* Functions:
- terminal food digestion
- nutrient absorption (90% of nutrient absorption occurs here)
- endocrine secretion

* Three Regions:
- duodenum (first, shortest, widest part)
- jejunum
- ileum (connects ultimately to the large intestine)

* Plicae- folds in walls of intestine to increase surface area. Most abundant in jejunum. Some are permanent, some aren't.
Mucous Membrane- Plicae circulare
* Plicae circulares (circular folds):
- permanent folds
- mucosa + submucosa
Mucous Membrane- Intestinal villi
* Intestinal Villi:
- epithelium + lamina (in center of it)
- transitional shape

The intestinal villi extend into the lumen for absorption
Mucous Membrane- Intestinal glands
aka Crypts of Lieberkuhn (or intestinal crypts)

- there to increase surface area
- goblet cells associated
- paneth cells at bottom
Cells of Intestinal Mucosal Membrane
* Enterocytes (function is absorption)

* Goblet (mucin-secreting gland; increase toward ileum)

* Paneth (bacterial defense)

* Enteroendocrine (produce paracrine and endocrine hormones)

* M Cells (cover enlarged lymphatic nodules (Peyer's Patch))
- they absorb pathogens and present them to lymphocytes
Enterocytes- Brush Boarders
- increases surface area
- most numerous type of cell in small intestine
- they are absorptive cells specialized for the transport of substances from the lumen of the intestine to the circulatory system
Goblet Cells
produce mucus; most numerous in ileum
Paneth and Enteroendocrine Cells
- paneth = at the base of crypts; involved in bacterial defense.

- enteroendocrine cells in the small intestine produce nearly all of the same peptide hormones as they do in the stomach (CCK, secretin, GIP, motilin, etc)
Regional Differences between duodenum, jejunum and ileum
- duodenum- short, broad villi; fewest goblet cells

- jejunum- increase in number of goblet cells; leaf shaped

- ileum- finger-like projections; most goblet cells are associated with here
Large Intestine
- reabsorption of electrolytes and water
-elimination of undigested food and waste


1. Cecum
- vermiform appendix

2. Colon
- ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid

3. Rectum

* Ileal-cecal valve connects the large and small intestine
"pockets" or pouches that allow large intestine to expand
Taeinia coli
muscular bands that run the length of colon (help with expansion)
- the outer longitudinal layer of the muscularis externa exhibits three thickened, equally spaced bands known as teniae coli.
Large Intestine- Mucous
*Intestinal Glands:
- simple columnar
- goblet and absorptive cells
- no paneth

* Lamina Propria:
- lymphocytes
- large GALT
- no lymphatic vessels
Rectum and Anal Canal
* Rectum:
- transverse rectal folds
- glands with numerous goblet cells

* Anal Canal (the most distal portion of the alimentary canal):
- anal columns (upper part of canal)
- stratified squamous (lower)

*Muscularis becomes modified into Internal Sphincter.
*This canal has prominent longitudinal folds
Rectum-Anal Junction
*Anal Canal:
- submucosa dense irregular and vascularized

*Circumanal- gland that secretes pheromones (in animals)

*Vasculature associated with lamina propria in this area (hemorrhoids)
Accessory Digestive Organs
- Appendix
- Pancreas
- Liver
- Gallbladder
- a fingerlike projection off the cecum
- it is a small blind sac and prone to become infected
- lymphatic nodules associated
- has a head, body and tail
- it is both an exocrine and an endocrine organ (exocrine= synthesizes and secretes enzymes into duodenum; endocrine= synthesizes and secretes insulin and glucagon into blood)
- has a capsule of CT
- has septa extending into liver
Ducts Associated with Pancreas
* Pancreatic Duct (Wirsung)- dumps into common bile duct which eventually goes into duodenum

* Accessory Duct (Santorini)- dumps into duodenum also
Pancreas Microanatomy
*CT divides into lobes
- blood and tributaries

*Pancreatic Acini- dark areas (the exocrine function is here)

*Pancreatic Islets (aka Islets of Langerhans)- endocrine function here
Pancreas Exocrine Function
- release product into tubule
- acini cells produce pancreatic juices (H2O, ions and also produce enzymes- this creates an alkaline buffer)
In acini:
- serous, pyramidal
- zymogen granules

*Intercalated duct- inside acini
- centroacinar cells- produce pancreatic juices along with the acini cells

*Intralobular duct

*Interlobular duct

*Main pancreatic duct
Pancreas Endocrine Function
*Isle of Langerhans (types of cells):
1. A (glucagon)
2. B (insulin)
3. D (somatostatin)

*interact with capillaries within the tissue (there are no ducts)
Acute Hemoragic Pancreatitis
- pancreas begins to digest itself
- alcohol contributes to this
Cystic Fibrosis
- defective cilia, affects a number of systems. Pancreatic duct gets backed up and creates a thick mucous.
- biggest internal organ in the body

*Bilobed organ:
- Falciform ligament- separates the two lobes

*Capsule (Glisson's)- has CT covering it

- Portal triads associated
Liver detoxifies blood and reabsorbs nutrients coming from...
1. portal vein (from spleen, pancreas, intestines)
2. hepatic vein (from inferior vena cava)
3. hepatic artery (from large arteries)
Liver- Blood supply
- blood flows in through tetrad into central vein and it goes out
- bile ducts also present
- there is a central vein running through the center of the lobule
- the lobule is a hexagonal unit
- lobules aren't as prominent in humans as in other animals
Liver Lobule
- blood flows through sinusoids
- tissue of lobules = hepatocytes (responsible for cleaning up blood)
Kupffer Cells
basically macrophages in liver lobule
- they belong to the mononuclear phagocytic system
- radial, singular plate
- bili canaliculi
- exocrine and endocrine
Gall Bladder
-stores excess bile that is being produced (connected to duct into small intestine)

- Embryonic rudiment
- Blind sac
- Cystic duct
Gall Bladder microanatomy
*Mucosal folds
*Apical microvilli
- Muscularis mucosa
- Submucosa
*Smooth Muscle
Liver Diseases
*Hepatitis- breakdown of liver; associated with a virus

*Cirrhosis- hepatocytes are breaking down/dying and being replaced with fibrous tissue (this disrupts the whole system). Excess alcohol can cause this.

*Liver Cancer- can get it from hepatocytes becoming cancerous or getting it from another organ.