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66 Cards in this Set

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THYROID GLAND

THYROID HORMONE OR THYROXINE

INCREASES PRODUCTION OF ENERGY
THYROID HORMONE
PITUITARY GLAND / ANTERIOR LOBE

LH

LUTEINIZING HORMONE

FEMALE: OVULATION
LH
PITUITARY GLAND / ANTERIOR LOBE

LH

LUTEINIZING HORMONE

FEMALE: OVULATION
LH
SEX GLANDS / TESTES (MALE)

TESTOSTERONE

MATURATION OF REPRODUCTION SYSTEM, DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS, SPERM PRODUCTION
TESTOSTERONE
PARTS OF OUTER EAR + FUNCTION

OUTER EAR

1.AURICLE OR PINNA (DIRECTS SOUND WAVES INTO EAR
2. EXTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL (DIRECTS SOUND)
3. CERUMINOUS GLANDS (MOISTENS & LUBRICATES WITH EARWAX)
PARTS OF OUTER EAR AND FUNCTIONS
PARTS OF MIDDLE EAR + FUNCTIONS;

MIDDLE EAR
1. TYPMPANIC MEMBRANE-VIBRATES
2. OSSICLES (MALLUS-HAMMER), (INCUS-ANVIL), (STAPES-STIRRUP) THEY CONDUCT SOUND BY VIBRATION THEY ARE BONES
3. OVAL WINDOW-VIBRATES, ITS UNDER THE STAPES
4. EUSTACHIAN TUBE-GOES FROM MIDDLE EAR SO THE TYMPANIC MEMBRANE VIBRATES PROPERLY
MIDDLE EAR
PARTS OF THE INNER EAR AND FUNCTIONS

INNER EAR
1. VESTIBULE-BALANCE
2. SEMICIRCULAR CANALS-BALANCE
3. COCHLEA-FOR HEARING
INNER EAR
PANCREAS
-BETA CELLS OF THE ISLETS OF LANGERHANS

INSULIN

DECREASES BLOOD GLUCOSE BY INCREASING TRANSPORT OF GLUCOSE INTO CELL TO BE USED FOR ENERGY, INCREASES STORAGE OF EXCESS GLUCOSE AS GLYCOGEN, INCREASES TRANSPORT OF FATTY ACIDS AND AMINO ACIDS INTO CELL
INSULIN
PRODUCES A HORMONE THAT AFFECTS RBC PRODUCTION

KIDNEYS
KIDNEYS
PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

THYMUS GLAND
THYMUS GLAND
A TEMPORARY ENDOCRINE GLAND DURING PREGNANCY?

PLACENTA
PLACENTA
INFLUENCED BY THE AMOUNT OF LIGHT IN THE ENVIRONMENT

PINEAL GLAND
PINEAL GLAND
PITUITARY GLAND / ANTERIOR LOBE

GH

GROWTH HORMONE OR SOMATOTROPIN

PROMOTES GROWTH OF ALL TISSUES
GH GROWTH HORMONE
PARATHYROID GLAND

PTH
PARATHORMONE OR PARATHYROID HORMONE

INCREASES BLOOD CALCIUM BY STIMULATING OSTEOCLASTS TO BREAKDOWN BONE & BY INCREASING CA & P ABSORPTION IN SM INTESTINES & KIDNEYS
PTH
PARATHYROID GLAND
THYROID GLAND

CALCITONIN

DECREASES BLOOD CALCIUM BY INHIBITING OSTEOCLASTS (DECREASES BREAKDOWN OF BONE)
CALCITONIN
PANCREAS
-ALPHA CELLS OF THE ISLETS OF LANGERHANS

GLUCAGONS

INCREASES BLOOD GLUCOSE BY INCREASING GLYCOGENOLYSIS & GLUCONEOGENESIS
GLUCAGONS
PITUITARY GLAND / ANTERIOR LOBE

ACTH

ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE

STIMULATES ADRENAL CORTEX TO SECRETE ITS HORMONES
ATCH
PITUITARY GLAND / POSTERIOR LOBE

OXYTOCIN

STIMULATES UTERINE CONTRACTIONS, STIMULATES RELEASE OF MILK FROM BREASTS
OXYTOCIN
ADRENAL GLANDS
-ADRENAL MEDULLA

EPINEPHRINE & NOREPINEPHRINE
ADRENALIN & NORADRENALIN

PROLONGS "FIGHT OR FLIGHT" RESPONSE THAT IS INITIATED BY SYMPATHETIC NERVES
EPINEPHRINE
PITUITARY GLAND / ANTERIOR LOBE

ICSH

INTERSTITIIAL CELL-STIMULATING HORMONE

MALES: TESTOSTERONE SECRETION
ICSH
6 PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES OF THE EYE

1. FAT THAT CUSHIONS THE EYE
2. BONY ORBIT
3. EYELIDS, EYELASHES, BLINK REFLEX
4. CONJUNCTIVA
5. LACRIMAL GLANDS
6. SEBACEOUS GLANDS
6 PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES OF THE EYE
ADRENAL GLANDS
-ADRENAL CORTEX

ALDOSTERONE
(MINERALOCORTICOIDS)

INCREASES NA REABSORPTION FROM KIDNEYS TO BLOOD AND K EXCRETION BY WAY OF URINE
ALDOSTERONE
MINERALOCORTICOIDS
WHAT ARE THE 3 LAYERS OF THE EYE

1. SCLERA- "WHITES OF YOUR EYE"
2. CHOROID-MIDDLE, CONTAINS DARK PIGMENT TO PREVENT LIGHT FROM SCATTERING OF INCOMING LIGHT RAYS
3. RETINA-INNER-CONTAINS (RODS/PM)(CONES/AM) POSTERIOR WITH THE OPTIC NERVE
3 LAYERS OF THE EYE
LENS

(DIRECTLY BEHIND THE PUPIL) THE REFRACTING MECHANISM BEHIND THE IRIS MADE UP OF PLIABLE SUBSTANCE
LENS
PITUITARY GLAND / POSTERIOR LOBE

ADH

ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE

PROMOTES WATER REABSORPTION FROM KIDNEYS TO THE BLOOD
ADH
CORNEA

(LIES OVER THE IRIS) TRANSPARENT PART OF SCLERA OVER IRIS, ALLOWS LIGHT IN THE EYE
CORNEA
SEX GLANDS / OVARIES FEMALE

PROGESTERONE

WORKS WITH ESTROGEN TO ESTABLISH MENSTRUAL CYCLE AND PLAYS A ROLE IN PREGNANCY
PROGESTERONE
VITREOUS HUMOR

(FILLS THE EYEBALL) JELLY LIKE SUBSTANCE THAT HOLDS THE SHAPE OF THE EYE
VITREOUS HUMOR
FOVEA CENTRALIS

THE DEPRESSED AREA IN THE RETINA THAT IS THE POINT OF THE SHARPEST FOCUS (CONTAINS NO CONES)
FOVEA CENTRALIS
AQUEOUS HUMOR

(IN FRONT OF THE CRYSTALLINE LENS) WATER FLUID THAT FILLS THE ANTERIOR CHAMBER OF THE EYE
AQUEOUS HUMOR
CILIARY MUSCLE

(BODY) ATTACHED TO THE LENS, CLEAR PART, LOCATED BEHIND THE EYE (POSTERIOR) FUNCTION: ALTERS THE SHAPE OF LENS FOR ACCOMMODATION AND PRODUCES AQUEOUS HUMOR
CILIARY MUSCLE
IRIS

(FRONT PART OF THE CHOROID) COLORED STRUCTURE SEEN THROUGH THE CORNEA THAT REGULATES THE SIZE OF THE PUPIL
IRIS
INTRINSIC MUSCLES

TERM THAT DESCRIBES THE MUSCLES OF THE IRIS AND CILIARY BODY BECAUSE THEY ARE LOCATED ENTIRELY WITHIN THE EYEBALL
INTRINSIC MUSCLES
EXTRINSIC MUSCLES

TERM FOR THE MUSCLES LOCATED OUTSIDE THE EYEBALL THAT ARE ATTACHED TO BONES OF THE ORBIT AND TO THE SCLERA
EXTINSIC MUSCLES
OPTIC DISK

ANOTHER NAME FOR THE "BLIND SPOT", THE REGION WHERE THE OPTIC NERVE CONNECTS WITH THE EYE (NO RODS OR CONES)
OPTIC DISK
ADRENAL GLANDS
-ADRENAL CORTEX

GLUCOCORTICOIDS (CORTISOL)

INCREASES GLUCONEOGENESIS FOR ENERGY & CONSERVES GLUCOSE FOR USE BY THE BRAIN, ESPECIALLY DURING STRESS; HAS AN ANIT-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT (BLOCKS HISTAMINE)
GLUCOCORTICOIDS
CANAL OF SCHLEMM

REABSORBS THE AQUEOUS HUMOR (FRONT OF LENS) A RING SHAPED CANAL THAT ENCIRCLES THE EYEBALL AT THE SCLEROCORNEAL JUNCTION (PRESSURE/BALANCE)
CANAL OF SCHLEMM
PATHWAY OF LIGHT TO PRODUCE VISION

CONJUNCTIVA > CORNEA > AQUEOUS HUMOR > PUPIL > LENS > VITREOUS HUMOR > RETINA > OPTIC NERVE > BRAIN (OCCIPITAL LOBE)
PATHWAY TO VISION
REFRACTION

THE BENDING OF LIGHT RAYS SO THAT THE LIGHT FROM A LARGE AREA CAN BE FOCUSED ON A SMALL SURFACE
REFRACTION
4 REFRACTIVE STRUCTURES IN THE EYE

1. CORNEA
2. AQUEOS HUMOR
3. LENS >>> CHANGES (ACCOMMODATION)
4. VITREOUS HUMOR
4 REFRACTIVE STRUCTURES IN THE EYE
PITUITARY GLAND / ANTERIOR LOBE

PROLACTIN

STIMULATES PRODUCTION OF MILK BY BREASTS
PROLACTIN
PATHWAY OF SOUND

PINNA > EXT AUDITORY CANAL > TYPANIC MEMBRANE > MALLEUS > INCUS > STAPES > OVAL WINDOW > PERILYMPH > MEMBRANEOUS LABYRINTH > ENDOLYMPH > ORGAN OF CORTI > ACOUSTIC NERVE > BRAIN (TEMPORAL LOBE)
PATHWAY OF SOUND
HOW DOES THE EAR MAINTAIN BALANCE?

THE EAR HAS SENSORY RECEPTORS THAT ARE SENSITIVE TO MOVEMENT OF FLUID IN AND OUT OF THE CANALS. STONES SHIFT WITH POSITIONING DUE TO GRAVITY
HOW DOES THE EAR MAINTAIN BALANCE?
SEX GLANDS / OVARIES (FEMALE)

ESTROGEN

MATURATION OF REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM, DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS, REGULATES MENSTRUAL CYCLE
ESTROGEN
PITUITARY GLAND / ANTERIOR LOBE

FSH

FOLLICLE-STIMULATING HORMONE

FEMALES: STIMULATES OVARIAN FOLLICLES TO MATURE & ESTROGEN PRODUCTION
FSH FOR FEMALES
PITUITARY GLAND / ANTERIOR LOBE

FSH

FOLLICLE-STIMULATING HORMONE

MALES: SPERM PRODUCTION
FSH FOR MALES
HOW DOES THE FUNCTION OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM DIFFER FROM THE FUNCTION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM?

NERVOUS SYSTEM-RAPID, BRIEF COMMUNICATION WITH NERVE IMPULSES

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM-SLOW, LONGER LASTING THROUGH CHEMICALS CALLED HORMONES
HOW DO THE NERVOUS AND ENDOCRINE DIFFER?
HOW DO THE ENDOCRINE AND EXOCRINE DIFFER?

EXOCRINE HAS DUCTS, AND RELEASE

ENDOCRINE IS DUCTLESS AND CARRY
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN EXOCRINE AND ENDOCRINE?
WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ENDOCRINE GLAND?

1. DUCTLESS
2. RELEASES HORMONES IN THE BLOOD
3. EACH HORMONE EXERTS AN EFFORT ON ITS SPECIFIC TARGET TISSUE OR ORGAN
CHARACTERISCTICS OF AN ENDOCRINE GLAND
3 WAYS ENDOCRINE GLANDS ARE STIMULATED?

1. BY A NERVE IMPULSE
2. BY A HORMONE
3. BY NEGATIVE FEEDBACK
3 WAYS ENDOCRINES ARE STIMULATED
THE NORMAL BLOOD LEVEL OF CALCIUM

is 9-11mg/100cc
NORMAL BLOOD LEVEL OF CALCIUM
THE NORMAL LEVEL OF GLUCOSE

normal level is 80-120mg/100cc
NORMAL LEVEL OF GLUCOSE
HORMONE

A CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE PRODUCED BY AN ENDOCRINE GLAND
HORMONE
TARGET CELLS OR TISSUE

ORGAN OR CELL ON WHICH A HORMONE WORKS, RESPONDS
TARGET CELLS OR TISSUE
PROSTAGLANDINA

A GROUP OF NATURALLY OCCURING FATTY ACIDS THAT AFFECT MANY BODY FUNCTIONS (LOCALLY)
PROSTAGLANDINA
GLUCONEOGENESIS

FORMATION OF GLUCOSE OR GLYCOGEN FROM PROTEIN OR FAT COMPOUNDS
GLUCONEOGENESIS
GLYCOGENOLYSIS

BREAK DOWN OF SUGAR
GLYCOGENOLYSIS
LOCATION OF THE PITUITARY GLAND

LOCATED AT THE BASE OF THE BRAIN OF THE SPHENOID BONE
LOCATION OF THE PITUITARY GLAND
LOCATION OF THE THYROID GLAND

LOCATED IN THE LOWER ANTERIOR NECK
LOCATION OF THE THYROID GLAND
LOCATION OF THE ADRENAL GLANDS

ADRENAL GLANDS ARE LOCATED ON TOP OF THE KIDNEYS
LOCATION OF THE ADRENAL GLANDS
PITUITARY GLAND / ANTERIOR LOBE

TSH

THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE

STIMULATES THYROID GLAND TO GROW AND PRODUCE THYROID HORMONE
TSH
LOCATION OF THE ISLETS OF LANGERHANS

ISLETS OF LANGERHANS ARE ABOUT 1 MILLION CELL CLUSTERS SCATTERED THROUGHOUT THE PANCREAS (LOCATED IN THE HYPOGASTRIC AREA AND LEFT UPPER QUADRANT) ALPA-GLUCAGON BETA-INSULIN DELTA-SOMATOSTATIN
LOCATION OF THE ISLETS OF LANGERHAN
LOCATION OF THE OVARIES

THE OVARIES ARE LOCATED IN THE LOWER BELLY
OVARY LOCATION
TESTES ARE LOCATED

LOCATION OF THE TESTES
MALE REPRODUCTION SYSTEM
TESTES
WHAT MINERAL IS NEEDED FOR THE THYROID GLAND TO FUNCTION PROPERLY?

IODINE
MINERAL FOR THYROID GLAND
WHY IS THE PITUITARY GLAND CONSIDERED THE MASTER GLAND?

IT CONTROLS OTHER GLANDS AND HAS MANY FUNCTIONS
PITUITARY GLAND / MASTER GLAND