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45 Cards in this Set

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how much water is in an adult and kid?
infants are 77%

adults are 60%
fat contains
no water
cells are intracellular
tissue space is interititial
and blood vessels are...
INTRAVASCULAR
most body water is ...
intracellular

60% body weight is water
2/3 inside the cells!
40% of the body weight then is intracellular
what is extracellular ?
1/4 is intravascular (veins)
5 % of the body
the deal w/ homeostatis w/ fluids and electrolytes is
you increase intake of fluids, you increase output

you decrease intake, output decreases, so you get thirsty
how much fluid do we lose thru the
skin
lungs
urine
feces?
skin 500 - 900 mL
lungs 500 mL
urine 1400-1500 mL
feces 100 mL
how do we regulate our fluids?
thirst
electrolytes
hormones
lymphatic
skin
lungs
kidneys
how does thirst work?
hypothalamus alerts us to drink
tells us to increase intake
doesn't work well when we are young or old
what does Na do?
retains fluids
what does protein and albumin do?
holds fluids by oncotic pressure so if we have enough proteins, we can hold more fluids, SO these would be large muscle groups
why do we never see proteins in our urine?
proteins are large molecules and so if this does happen we have a problem
hormones like ADH (hypothalamus) do what?
promote water reabsorption in kidneys
what does Aldostererone do?
adrenal cortex (inside kidneys) promotes Na reabsorbed by kidneys
Renin (kidneys)
what does this hormone do?
promotes release of aldesterone
promotes peripheral vasoconstriction
how are electrolytes measured?
mEq/L (chemical activity)
primary extracellular Na+ give examples
tears
body fluids
all salty
what is the primary intracellular elecrtrolyte?
potassium
F&E are not static. they move 4 ways:
disfussion
osmosis
flitration
active transport
difussion is mol. across membranes from hi to lo concentration
osmosis is from lo to hi
filtration is move together in response to pressure
active transport = materials across membrane by chemical activity (sodium pump)
what is a solvent?
solvent is the liquid
what is the solute?
whats dissolved in the liquid
what is isotonic?
same concentration
hypotonic is lesser/greater concentrations of solutes?
lesser
hypertonic is greater/lesser concentration of solutes?
greater
what is saline?
neutral
hypotonic solutions pull or push fluids in out?
hypo pull fluids in
hypertonic solutions make fluids ?
leave
what does sodium do?
maitain water balance
water goes where salt is
if we retain salt, we retain water
if we excrete salt, we lose water
what regulates salt?
salt intake
aldosterone
urinary output of salt
where do we get salt?
table salt
procesed meats
snack foods
canned veggies
what is the normal range for salt in the body?
135-145 mEq/L serum
what is hyponatremia?
a decrease of salt in the blood
what are symptoms of hyponatrena ?
anorexia
tachycardia
restlessness
twitching
flushed, dry skin
potassium:
intracellular it regulates
neuromuscular excitablility
muscle contractions
get it from fruits, veggies, whole grains, meats, beans
so if someone is on a diuretic they need to eat bananas, why?
the diuretic (lasix) pulls potassium from the body
what in the body regulates K+
kidneys regulate potssiaum
if U.O in down, K+ excretion if down
if U.O. is up, K+ excretion is up
so K+ is inversely related to
salt
is salt is retained, potassium is ...
excreted
if salt is excreated, salt is ...
retained
what happens when salt gets b/l 3.5 mEq/L
hypokalemia w/h affects the heart
where are / what are barorceptors?
aorta, pulmonary arteries, carotid sinus

hyper sensitive to changes in blood volume and pressure
what happens when the baroreceptors get stimulated?
release of ADH
what does ADH do?
causes reabsoption of water
forces that increase BP
kidneys sense decrease blood flow, so what do they do?
produce renin
what do lymphatics do?
incease return of water and protein to vascular spaces