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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Assumptions of Traditional Assessment
1. Behavior is a function of underlying mental constructs
2. Behavior and constructs inferred from behavior are fundamentally different
3. 5 problems of psychological measures
4. Behavior signs are independent of the situation
5 problems of psychological measurement
1. No single approach universally accepted
2. Measurements based on limited sample
3. Measurement is subject to error
4. Measurement scales lack well defined units
5. Constructs are defined by 2 statistical relations relations
Goals of Traditional Assessment
1. Assign construct based on variability in performance
2. Explain / predict behavior from construct value
3. Select treatments that are effective for individuals with similar construct values
Scaling Person's Score
1. Compute mean as reference point
2. Compute deviation score x = X - u
3. Compute variance as index of total variability in set of scores
4. Compute z score as a standard scale
z = (x-u)/ o
5. Correlation: pxy = Sum or zxzy / N
6. Test scores as composite Scores
Item discrimination Indices
1. Total score as criterion
2. Item difficulty
3. Distribution of Responses
4. D Coefficient
5. Item total correlation
6. Item reliability/validity index
Generating initial item pool
1. Purpose
2. Identify behaviors represent construct
3. Table of Specifications
4. Initial item pool
Vagonotic Measurement
phenomena defined into existence based on variation in a set of underlying observations
Mental constructs
psychological property/ attribute; innate, stable, influence behavior in dimension
Variance is the basis of
degree to which score difference can be attributed to systematic sources of variation
Systematic Variation
know influences; non-random fluctuations
True Score Theory
the average of the observed scores obtained over an infinite # of repeated testings with same test.
Realization of random variable
when you have a distribution of scores you can see
Expected value of random variable
mean of observed scores = true score
Reliability coefficient
Correlation between true and observed scores; estimate correlation on parallel tests
Standard error of measurement
discrepancy between examinees observed test score and true score; SD one person's scores over k # of parallel tests; substitue SD for the total test to estimate SEM for 1 person; confidence intervals
Generalizability Theory
1. Estimates of reliability based on how test is going to be used
2. Identify sources of measurement error (of concern) and conduct reliability study to assess effects simultaneously

Partition garbage can error variance into different sources

Based on ratio of variance estimates from diff sources; get variance by deviating scores from grand mean
Single Facet design
grouping variable in ANOVA
one way anova
Factor Analysis
data reduction technique that use correlations among large amount of variables to create composite variables/factors

Looking for % of VAC ranks
table of scores with columns of variables and rows of persons
A linear combination of variables in matrix
Factor loadings
correlation with an item with a factor

Vector space

Each factor column can be considered a vector

2 or more

more than 2 dimensions of axis
Decision 1
Define factors

Principal components; total variance
common factors; covariance only
communality estimates; ult-r sq in diag on correlation matrix
Decision 2
Extracting Successive Factors:

Eigenvalue = sum of squared factor loadings for each factor or column

EIGENVALUE/ # of items = % VAC by a factor

MINEGAN = 1 = atleast as much % VAC as an item

Communality = proportion of an item's variance accounted for by the factors
Decision 3
Rotation of initial factors to teminal factors

VARIMAX - orthogonal = 90 degrees
QUARTIMIN - oblique = < 90 degrees


< 90
Decision 4
Interpreting Factors
Minimum factor loading for inclusion
Factor label - dimension represented
Deviation Score
x = X-u
z score
z = x-u/o
xy =
variance of composite
Cronbach's Alpha
= k
Generalizability coefficient
sum of squared factor loadings for each column or factor