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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Colloid Osmotic pressure
caused by large formed elements and proteins pulling water back into capillaries
What is plasma made up of
Water, ions, gases, glucose, nitrogenous wastes, antibodies, hormones, three kind of plasma proteins. Fibrinogens, Albumins, Globulins
plasma protein that becomes fibrin for blood clots
responsible for Colloid osmotic pressure, viscosity, and transport
important for immune system
red Blood cells, transport O2 on hemoglobin, Co2 on globulin, lose neucleus when mature,cytoskeleton for surface area. No mitochondria
White blood cells. immune defense and Phagocytosis
Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
Types of Leukocytes
phagocytes, increases wiht infection
B cells and Tcells -antibodies,fights tumors and directs immune attack.
Macrophages for long term cleanup, increased with long term infection
kills parasitic worms
Mast cells - contains histamines that discharged at site of inflammation, allergies
Creates platelets cell fragments needed for clotting
creation of new blood vessels, important for wound repair, endometrial lining, fighting cancerous cells
Blood cell formation, mostly happens in bone marrow from stem cells. Regulated by cytokines and growth factors
the percentage of the total blood volume that is occupied by packed red blood cells after being in a centrifuge.
total hemoglobin content of blood
What is MVC, mean Red Blood Cells
The size of the red blood cells - certain deseases have different siz RBC (anemia small blood cells)
shape of red blood cell, can tell things like sickle cell anemia
Total WBC
How many WBC you have. can show if you have an infection
differential WBC
Total number of each kind of WBC. Tells you what kind of infection you have
Platelet count
how many platelets you have in blood, how well you clot.
stopping bleeding
Steps in Hemostasis
1 vasoconstriction
2 platelet activation
3 platelets create loose plug
4 prothrombin activates thrombin
5 thrombin, turns Fibrinogen into Fibrin
6 Fibrin mixes wth Ca++ that polymerizes and makes netting to hold clot,
7 thrombin at same time activates Plasmin which is slow acting enzyme anticoagulant which dissolves clot.
Intrinsic pathway of Coagulation
Everything you need is already circulating in plasma waiting to be activated by Collagen
Extrinsic pathway of coagulation
triggered to start when damage exposes a tissue factor or chemical that will initiates it.
What drives exchange in capillaries
hydrostatic and colloidal pressures
path of blood flow
capillary bed - veinules - veins - vena cava - R atrium - right av valve - R ventricle - pulmonary similunar valve - Pulmonary artery -lungs, - pulmonary vein to L Atrium- through L AV valve - L Ventricle - Aortic semilunar valve to Aorta to arteries - arterioles - capillaries -
Cardiac output
heart rate x stretch volume
Starlings Law
greater the amount of blood returning to the heart the greater the stretch, increases calcium increases powerstrokes
bulk flow out of capillaries into interstitial fluids, powered by hydorstatic pressure from heart. Happens on areteriole side
powered by colloidal osmotic pressure happens on veinule side.
coronary heart disease caused by elevated cholesterol develops plaque on the arteries by blockages to heart muscle causing heart attack
muscle between two sides of heart
Function of the immune system
scavenge dead or damaged tissue and cells
protect from pathogens and foreign molecules(viruses, bacteria)
Recognizes and removes abnormal cells
First line of defense
physical barriers
Chemical acids, mucouse and lysosomes
Inate/non specific
Second line of defense
inate/immune response leukocytes attack and destroy invaders. phagocytes,
Third line of defense
Acquired B and T cells NK
Complement system
plasma and cell pembrane proteins that act as cytolytic agents and mediators of inflamation
Hyperactive response
an allergy, inflammation reaction to non pathogen
Autoimmune disease
incorrect response, immune system creates antibodies against it's own tissues
Active Hyperemia
too much blood flow brought on by needing more nutrients, or blood flow
Inactive hyperemia
caused by an occlussion. Calls in more dilators or pressure to remove blockage
Natural Immuntiy
Active - get sick and body creates Memory
Passive - mother to child
Artificial Immunity
Active - Immunizations
Passive - given an antibody.
Diastolic pressure
caused by pressure created by elastic artery recoil from the heart
Systolic pressure
pressure created by left ventricle contracting
Trace Electrical signal through heart cycle
AP from SA node -Pause AV node delay-
AV node
Bundles of His
Perkinji fibers
What is happening when heart is in systole?
it is contracting
What is happening when heart is in diasole?
heart is relaxed
beating too fast
same volume( in this case is building pressure)
Heart cycle
heart is relaxed in diastole
blood passively filling atria and ventricles
Aortic and pulmonary simi lunar valves closed
AV valves open
Atria contracts closing AV Valves
Ventricle isovoumetric contraction increasing pressure
pressure rises and exceeds pressure in arteries
pushes open semi lunar valves and blood is ejected
both sides relax and semilunar valves close
Continuous capillaries
used in blood brain barrier. Very selective
Fennestrated capillaries
very leaky gaps for bulk fluid for filtration like in kidneys
allows faster flow that has sphincters. White blood cells
Whay are capillaries ideal for material exchange
greatest total cross sectional area
lowest velocity
What does the Lymphatic system do
removes leaky fluids from ECF and returns to plasma, transports fats,
B Lymphocytes
mature in bone marrow, secrete antibodies, memeory cells and humeral immunities, become plsma cells and release antibodies that activates macrophages. CAn agglutinate and precipitate into blood vessel wall
T Lymphocytes
cell mediated imunity, helper T and cytotoxic cells.
Helper T
directs the immune system
cytotoxic and Natural Killer cells
attacks and destroy pathogen