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153 Cards in this Set

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Fetal Circulation
p. 76
Do you want to see a high yield diagram?
Then go to page 76!
Saturation level of blood in umbilical vein?
Foramen ovale: its function in fetal circulation?
Most oxygenated blood reaching the heart via the IVC is diverted through the foramen ovale and pumped out the aorta to the head.
Ductus Arteriosus: its function in fetal circulation?
Deoxygenated blood from the SVC is expelled into the pulmonary artery and ductus arteriosus to the lower body of the fetus.
What happens at birth, when infant takes a breath?
Decreased resistance in pulmonary vasculature causes increased left atrial pressure vs right atrial pressure; foramen ovale closes; increase in O2 leads to decrease in prostaglandins, causing closure of ductus arteriosus.
What drug can be given to close a patent ductus arteriosus?
What drug can be given to keep a patent ductus arteriosus open?
Fetal-postnatal derivatives
Umbilical vein becomes the:
ligamentum teres hepatis
umbilical arteries become the:
medial umbilical ligaments
ductus Arteriosus becomes the:
ligamentum arteriosum
ductus venosus becomes the:
ligamentum venosum
foramen ovale becomes the:
fossa ovalis
allantois - urachus becomes the:
median umbilical ligament
notochord becomes the:
nucleus pulposus
urachal cyst or sinus is a remnant of the:
allantois (urine drainage from the bladder)
Aortic Arch Derivatives
1st arch:
part of maxillary artery (1st is MAXimal)
2nd arch:
stapedial artery and hyoid artery (Second = Stapedial)
3rd arch:
common Carotid artery and proximal part of internal carotid artery (C is the 3rd letter of the alphabet)
4th arch:
on left, aortic arch; on right, proximal part of right subclavian artery 4th arch (4 limbs) = systemic
6th arch:
proximal part of pulmonary arteries and (on left only) ductus arteriosus. 6th arch = pulmonary and the pulmonary-to-systemic shunt (ductus arteriosus)
diagram of aortic arch derivatives:
see page 76!
Branchial apparatus
p. 77
branchial clefts are dervied from:
branchial arched are derived from:
mesoderm and neural crests
branchial pouches are derived from:
mnemonic to remember branchial apparatus derivation:
CAP covers outside from inside (Clefts = ectoderm, Arches = mesoderm, Pouches = endoderm)
Branchial arch 1 derivatives
p. 77
Meckel's cartilage:
Mandible, Malleus,incus,sphenoMandibular ligament
Muscles of Mastication (temporalis, Masseter, lateral and Medial pterygoids), Mylohyoid, anterior belly of digastric, tesnsor tympani, tensor veli palatini
Branchial Arch 2 derivatives
p. 77
Reichert's cartilage:
Stapes, Styloid process, lesser horn of hyoid, Stylohyoid ligament
muscles of facial expression, Stapedius,Stylohyoid, posterior belly of digastric.
Branchial arch 3 derivatives
greater horn of hyoid
stylopharyngeus (Think of pharnx: stylopharyngeus is innervated by glossopharyngeal nerve.
Branchial arch 4 to 6 derivatives
thyroid, cricoid, arytenoids, cornicuate, cuneiform
Muscles (4th arch):
mostly pharyngeal constrictors, cricothyroid, levator veli palatini.
5th arch:
makes no major developmental contributions
Muscles (6th arch):
all intrinsic muscles of larynx except cricothyroid
Nerve (4th arch):
Nerve (6th arch):
CNX (recurrent laryngeal branch)
Branchial arch innervation
Arch 1 derviatives are supplied by:
CN V2 and V3
Arch 2 derivatives are supplied by:
Arch 3 derivatives are supplied by:
Arch 4 and 6 derivatives supplied by:
For diagram:
see p. 77
Branchial cleft derivatives
p. 77
1st cleft develops into
external auditory meatus
2nd through 4th clefts form:
temporary cervical sinuses, which are obliterated by proliferation of 2nd arch mesenchyme.
Persistent cervial sinus can lead to a:
branchial cyst in the neck
Ear development:
Bone: Incus/Malleus come from:
1st arch
Bone: Stapes comes from:
2nd arch
Muscle: Tensor tympani (V3) comes from:
1st arch
Muscle: Stapedius (VII) comes from:
2nd arch
External auditory meatus comes from:
1st cleft
Eardrum, eustacian tube comes from:
1st pharyngeal membrane
Branchial pouch derviatives:
p. 78
1st pouch develops into:
middle ear cavity, eustacian tube, mastiod air cells (1st pouch contributes to endoderm-lined structures of ear)
2nd pouch develops into:
epithelial lining of palatine tonsil
3rd pouch (dorsal wings) develops into:
inferior parathyroids (3rd pouch contributes to 3 structures: thymus, left and right inferior parathyroids)
3rd pouch (ventral wings) develops into:
4th pouch develops into:
superior parathyroids
Aberrant development of 3rd and 4th pouches -->
DiGeorge's syndrome --> leads to T-cell deficiency (thymic hypoplasia) and hypocalcemia (parathyroid glands)
p. 78
Site of:
T-cell maturation
Encapsulated or unencapsulated?
which branchial pouch?
from epithelium of 3rd branchial pouches
Lymphocyte origin?
lymphocytes are of mesenchymal origin
cortex is dense with:
immature T cells
medulla is pale with:
mature T cells and epithelial reticular cells and contains Hassall's corpuscles. (think of the Thymus as "finishing school" for T cells. They arrive immature and "dense" in the cortex; they are mature in the medulla.
What occurs at the corticomedullary junction?
Positive and negative selection
Thyroid Development
p. 78
Thyroid diverticulum arises from:
floor of primitive pharnyx, descends into neck.
Connected to tongue by
thyroglossal duct, which normally disappears but may persist as a pyramidal lobe of thyroid.
Formen cecum is:
a normal remnant of the thyroglossal duct
The most common ectopic thyroid tissue site is the:
Tongue development
p. 78
1st branchial arch forms the
anterior 2/3 of the tongue (thus sensation via CN V3, taste via CNVII)
3rd and 4th branchial arches form:
posterior 1/3 of the tongue (thus sensation and taste mainly via CN IX, extreme posterior via CN X).
Cranial nerves for taste?
CN VII, IX, X (solitary nucleus)
Motor innervation is via CN?
For diagram:
see p. 78
Cleft lip and cleft palate:
p. 78
define cleft lip
failure of fusion of the maxillary and medial nasal processes
define cleft palate
failure of fusion of the lateral palatine processes, the nasal septum, and/or the median palatine process.
For diagram:
see p. 78
Diaphragm embryology
p. 79
diaphragm is derived from:
Septum transversarium, Pleuroperitoneal folds, Body wall, Dorsal mesentery of esophagus (Several Parts Build Diaphragm. Diaphragm descends during develpoement but maintains innervation from above C3-C5. "C3, 4, 5 keeps the diaphragm alive."
hiatial hernia
abdominal contents may herniate into the throax due to incomplete development of the diaphragm.
For diagram:
see p. 79
Bone Formation
p. 79
spontaneous bone formation without preexisting cartilage.
ossification of carilaginous molds. Long bones form by this type of ossification at 1o and 2o centers
Meckel's Diverticulum
p. 79
persistence of the vitelline duct or yolk stalk. May contain ectopic acid-secreting gastric muscosa and/or pancreatic tissue.
What is the most common congenital anomaly of the GI tract?
Meckel's diverticulum
Complications of Meckel's Diverticulum?
can cause bleeding or obstruction near the terminal ileum.
Comparison of Meckel's Diverticulum to Omphalomesenteric cyst?
Cystic dilatation of the vitelline duct.
Associated with
intussusception and volvulus
Mnemonic to remember Meckel's diverticulum
The five 2's: 2 inches long, 2 feet from the ileocecal valve, 2% of population, commonly presents in first 2 years of life, may have 2 epithelia.
For diagram:
see p. 79
Pancreas and Spleen embryology
p. 79
Parcreas is derived from the
ventral pancreatic bud becomes the
pancretic head, uncinate process (lower half of head), and main pancreatic duct.
dorsal pancreatic bud becomes:
everything else (body, tail, isthmus, and accessory pancreatic duct).
Spleen arises from
dorsal mesentery but is supplied by artery of foregut.
For diagram:
see p 79
Genital ducts
p. 80
Mesonephric (wolffian) duct
Develops into Seminal vesicles, Epididymis, Ejaculatory duct, and Ductus deferens (SEED)
Paramesonephric (mullerian) duct
Develops into fallopian tube, uterus, and part of vagina.
Mullerian inhibiting substance is secreted by:
the testes to suppress development of paramesonephric ducts in males.
For diagram:
see p. 80
Bicornuate uterus:
p. 80
results from
incomplete fusion of the paramesonephric ducts.
Associated with
urinary tract abnormalities and infertility
For diagram:
see p. 80
Male/female genital homologues:
p. 80
Genital tubercle (male) -->
glans penis via dihydrotestosterone
genital tubercle (female) -->
glans clitoris via estrogen
urogenital sinus (male) -->
corpus spongiosum, bulbourethral glands (of Cowper), prostate gland: via dihydrotestosterone
urogenital sinus (female) -->
vestiubular bulbs, greater vestibular glands (of Bartholin), Urethral and paraurethral glands (of Skene): via estrogen
urogenital folds (male) -->
ventral shaft of penis (penile urethra) via dihydrotestosterone
urogenital folds (female) -->
labia minora via estrogen
labioscrotal swelling (male) -->
scrotum via dihydrotestosterone
labioscrotal swelling (female) -->
labia majora via estrogen
For diagram:
see p. 80
Congenital penile abnormalities
p. 81
abnormal opening of the penile urethra on inferior (ventral) side of penis due to failure of urethral folds to close.
abnormal opening of the penile urethra on superior (dorsal) side of penis due to faulty positioning of the genital tubercle.
epispadia is associated with
exstrophy of the bladder
Which is more common, hypospadia or epispadia?
Hypospadial; fix hypospadias to prevent UTI's
Sperm Development
p. 81
Spermatogenesis begins with
spermatogonia (type A and type B; type A forms both type A and type B spermatogonia)
full development takes how long?
2 months
where does spermatogenesis occur?
Spermatogenesis occurs in Seminiferous tubules.
For diagram:
see p. 81
Derivation of sperm parts:
p. 81
acrosome is derived from
the golgi apparatus and flagellum (tail) from one of the centrioles.
what does the neck of the sperm have?
Middle piece (neck) has Mitochondria.
Sperm food supply is:
For diagram:
see p. 81
Meiosis and Ovulation:
p. 81
1o oocytes begin and complete meiosis I when?
begin: during fetal life; complete: just prior to ovulation. Meiosis I is arrested in prOphase for years until Ovulation.
What phase is Meiosis II arrested in?
Meiosis II is arrested in METaphase until fertilization. -- "An egg MET a sperm."