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102 Cards in this Set

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What will determine how much of a toxicant will be distributed to a specific target organ?
Time-dependant toxicokinetic processes
Defined as adverse effects or diseased states manifested in specific organs in the body
Target organ toxicity
Toxicity may be enhanced by these two things
Distribution features - deliver a high concentratio of the toxicant to the target organ
inherant features - render target organ highly susceptible to the toxicant
Observed differences in target organ toxicity are most likely due to ________ and _________ differences in _______.
Observed differences in target organ toxicity are most likely due to structural and functional differences in cells that make up organ tissues
Cells differ in many ways including (7)
*energy consumption
*rate of cellular division
*active and passive transport characteristics
*realationship to cell barriers and extracellular matricies
*presence of intracellular components
*repair mechanisms
*biotransformation capacity
This is what causes each organ to respond to a toxicant in a different way
Cellular specialization
Not all organs are affected to the same extent by a toxicant (T/F)
true
a single toxicant may have only one target organ (T/F)
false; may have seveeral target organs
several toxicants may have the same target organ (T/F)
true
the highest concentration of a toxicant is always found in the target organ
false; is NOT always found in the target organ
the concentration of a toxicant in a target organ is a result of________
all the TOXICOKINETIC processes
The immune system consists of a network of organs which include
*bone marrow
*thymus
*spleen
*lymph nodes
these and other cells are derived from the organs of the immune system
lymphocytes
T cells are derived from _____
the pluripotent cells in the bone marrow
T cells are processed through the ______
thymus
T lymphocytes constitute what percentage of circulating lymphocytes
70%
On contact with antigens from APCs, these become activated and responsible for mediated cellular immunity.
T lymphocytes
give two examples of antigen -presenting cells (APCs)
macrophages
B cells
B cells are derived from______
pluripotent cells in the bone marrow
Pluripotent cells are generated from____
Lymphoid stem cells
B cells are processed through ____
Bursal equivalent tissues
Give examples of Bursal equivalen tissues
*bone marrow
*lymph nodes
*lymphoid tissues in gut (appendix, cecum , Peyer's patches)
B lymphocytes constitute what percentage of circulating lymphocytes
30%
The primary immune response is initiated by contatct of _______ with B cells.
antigen
Some B cells become _____ which retain the surface immunoglobulin receptors, others become ______
memory cells
plasma cells
Memeory cells have Ig__ and Ig__ on their surface
IgM
IgD
Exposure of memory cells to the same antigen at a later time results in _______
secondary immune response
Null cells lack ________ and participate in ______.
*characteristic surface markers of T and B cells
*Nonspecific immune system functions
These are a null cell which have spontaneous cytolytic activity especially leukemia and carcinoma cells.
Natural killer (NK) cells
From what are macrophages derived?
the stem cell pool in the bone marrow
After thry are release from the marrow acrophages appear in the blood as what? in the tissues as what?
monocytes
After thry are release from the marrow acrophages appear in the tissues as what?
histiocytes
On contact with a foriegn body, Macrophages engulf it becoming______
activated macrophages
Activated macrophages are rich in________
hydrolytic enzymes
These are derived from the bone marrow, are located in the skin, and act as APCs.
Langerhans cells
Langerhans cells serve to process________ and initiate ______
dermal antigens
contact allery
Name the three types of immune responses
*Immunosuppresion
*Hypersensitivity and alergy
*Autoimmunity
TCDD is an
immunotoxin
TCDD supresses ______immune functions while sparing ____ immmune functions.
specifc
non-specific
Name three types of non specific immune system cells.
NK cells
Macrophages
Langerhans cells
The immunotoxicity of TCDD is mediated through binding to the _____ on lymphoid cells
Ah receptors
The two most common Hypersensitivity reactions are
Type 1 - immediate
Type 4 - delayed
Type 1 hypersensitivity reaction is delayed (T/F)
false, type 1 is immediate
Type 1 In a type one reaction, the first exposure to the antigen induces the production of this type of antibody
IgE
Subsequent exposure to antigen in a type on reaction triggers the release of these four substances
histamine
heparin
seratonin
prostaglandins
Type one reactions recsult in clinical malfestations such as
asthma
rhinitis
urticaria
anaphylaxis
Type 2 hypersensitivity reaction is very common (t/f)
false; it is not common at all, lowry said he only saw one case in his career.
Type 2 hypersensitivity reaction is characterized by cytolysis through______ or________.
IgG or IgM
The targets of a Type 2 hypersensitivity rxn are typically
*erythrocytes
*leukocytes
*platelets
*progenitor cells of the above three
The result of cytolysis in a type 2 hypsens rxn are
hemolytic anemia
leucopenia
thrombocytopenia
Type 3 hypersensitivity rxn is less common (t/f)
true
Type 3 hypersensitivity rxn is also known as
Arthus reaction
In a type 3 hypersensitivity rxn the antigen-antibody complexes are deposited where?
vascular endothelium
Damaged blood vessesl in a type 3 hypersensitivity rxn may cause
*lupus erythematous (procainamide)
*glomular nephritis (gold)
Type 4 hypersensitivity rxn is delayed (t/f)
true
What mediates a type 4 hypersensitivity rxn?
T (cells rather than antibodies)
Perivascular infiltration of monocytes, lymphocytes, and lymphoblasts is characteristic of which type of hypersensitivity reaction?
type 4
When the immune system produces antibodies to endogeous antigens it is called
autoimmunity
Hemolytic anemia is due to the phagocytosis of erythrocytes because of ________
the presence of antibodies of endogenous antigens on the erythrocytes
Hemolytic anemia is an autoimmune diease (t/f)
true
Evidence does not show a specific chemical that directly causes an autoimmune response(t/f)
true
Auto immune diseases are all thought to be caused by a virus (t/f)
true
Name three types of autoimmune diseases
AIDS
rheumatoid arthritis
Lupus
this refers to the disease states in the respiratry system brought about by the inhalatio of gasses, vaoprs, liquid droplets and particulates
pulmunotoxicity
Inhalational toxicants may effect what three areas?
nasopharyngeal
thracheobronchial
alveolar
how small must a particulate be to go into the depp lung
0.5 microns
The respiratory lining is not highly susceptible to toxic substances (t/f)
false it IS highly susceptible
what two factors dimish the barrier quality of the repiratory epithelium
*Eptheilial cells are not always statified
*Epithelial cells are not keratinized
what type of epithelium is present in pharynx?
stratified squamous
what type of epithelium os present in tracheobronchial region?
cilliated columnar
Varied pulmunotoxicities are a reflection of the charactersitic assemblage of more than 40 different cell types present in the repiratory system (T/F)
True
An inflamatory response in the lungs leads to what two things?
*Contraction of the smooth musculature
*Adema
Contraction of the smooth musculature and adema are two conditions that together reduce what?
The cross sectional area of the air passageway in the lungs which in turn reduces the flow of air.
Some pulmunotoxicants target specific cells (T/F)
true
Clara cells are located in the region of the________.
terminal bronchioles
Pulmunotoxicity sometimes reflects the damage to specific cell populations which leads to which two things that decrease pulmonary function
*impairment of the mucocilliary escalator
*necrosis
Narrowing of the air passageways in response to stimuli including allernes, infections, exercise and drugs is called
Asthma
Occupational asthma develops when on contact with the substance the smooth muscles surrounding the _______ contract reducing their cross-sectional area which restricts the flow of air
bronchioles
Diffuse alveolar dammage(DAD) is clinically known as
adult respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS)
This results when the cells lining the alveoli and alveolar capilaries allow protein rich fluid to leak into the tiny spaces betwen the capillary and alveolus.
ARDS adult respiratory distress syndrome
cells lining the alveoli are called
pneumocytes
cells lining the alveolar capillaries are
endothelial cells
Protein rich fluid leaking into the spaces between the capillary and the alveolus leads to which three things
*destruction of type 1 pneumocytes
*inflammatory responses
*pulmonary fibrosis
pulmunotoxicity resulting from the inhalation of dust is called
pneumoconiosis
in upon inhalation of duat, the particulate matter enter the alveoli, they may stimulate the formation of________
pulmonary fibrosis
What is the most common type of cancer in the US
Lung Cancer
Carcinogens are directly linked to lung cancer (T/F)
false; they are causally linked to lung cancer
Type 1 is the immediate hypersensitivity reaction mediateed by what class of antibodies?
IgE
IgE is a cytophilic antibody exhibiting a high affinity for the membranes of _______ cells which are normally present in the airway mucosa
mast
Binding of anitgen to antibody on mast cell membrane initiates what?
expcytosis of mast cell granules
Histamine and the release of other active mediators causes what?
vasodilation
increased vascular permeability
tissue edema
discharge of copious amounts of mucos secretions
contraction of smooth muscle of airway
Type 1 reaction ususally occur within minutes (T/F)
true
Hay fever is an example of a type 1 reaction (T/F)
true
Antigens in a type one reaction ususally include pollens, organic dusts, or animal hairs.
true
Asthma caused by inhaled external antigens is called
extrinsic asthma
extrinsic asthma is usually triggered by
exogenous environmental agents
extrinisc asthma does not necessarily occur more often in people based on ocupation (t/f)
false, ocupationally related
what is suberosis?
bronchiol asthma and allergic alveolitis caused by cork dust
Intrinsic astma attacks are propogated by factors like
exercise, infection, emotional stress
intrinsic asthma can be conssidered within the scope of environmental disease (t/f)
true
Type 2 immune reactions are autoimmune reactions(t/f)
true
Environmental agents have been implicated in type 2 reactions (t/f)
false