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37 Cards in this Set

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Describe Health promotion, wellness, and illness prevention activities.
Passive and Active
Passive: individuals gain from the activities of others without acting themselves. Ex: Flouride in water
Active: Individuals adopt specific health programs.
Ex: Stop smoking, weight loss
Health Promotion activities can either be?
____________ or ____________
What are the three levels of prevention?
Primary- avoiding disease
Secondary- curing disease
Tertiary- diminishing complications
The three levels of preventive care are?
Discuss primary preventive care-
Primary: 1st level of prevention; "true prevention"
(Health promotion & disease prevention)Includes passive and active strategies. Purpose- to decrease the vulnerability of the individual or population to an illness or dysfunction.
Focuses on individuals who are at risk for developing specific diseases.
EX: Diabetic pts. who wear shoes all the time.
What the purpose is, who the focus is on- give an example.
Discuss secondary preventive care-
Activities are directed at diagnosis and prompt intervention, to return pt. to normal ASAP.
Focuses on persons who are experiencing health problems or illness and who are at risk for worsening or developing complications.
EX: selective exams, mass screening
What the purpose is, who the focus is on- give an example
Discuss tertiary preventive care-
Occurs when a defect or disability is permanent and irreversible. Activities are for rehab other than diagnosis and treatment. Prevention of further disability or complications.
Ex: in hosp. rehabilitation
What the purpose is, who the focus is on- give an example
What are the 4 types of risk factors?
-Genetic & Physiological factors
-Physical Environment
Describe risk factors-
any situation, habit, environmental condition, physiological condition or other variable that increases vulnerability of an individual or group to an illness or accident. The presence of risk factors does not mean that a disease will develop, but risk factors increase the chances that the individual will experience a particular disease. Can also be defined as an external or internal variable that makes a person or group more vulnerable to illnessor unhealthy event
Describe the variables that influence health beliefs and health practices.
Internal and External
There are two.
Describe Internal variables that can influence health beliefs and practices.
-Developmental stages
-Intellectual background
-Emotional factors degree or calm/stress
-Spiritual factors- "vibes" aura
Describe External variables that can influence health beliefs and practices.
- Family practices, way families use health care svcs influence helath practices
- Socioeconomic factors
- Cultural background
Health Belief Model
Considers factors influencing health beliefs; person's ideas, convictions and attitudes about health and illness. Positive and Negative behaviors. Provides a way of understanding & predicting how pts will behave in relation to their health and how they will follow health care therapies or regimens.
Factors that influence health beliefs?

What does it predict?
Positive vs. Negative Behaviors (Health Belief Model)
Positive: Immunizations, proper sleep, preventing illness.
Negative: smoking, drinking, drugs, ref. to take medications.
Examples of each-
What are the three components of the Health Belief model?
Give an example of each-
Individual's perception of susceptibility to an illness.
(Pt. needs to recognise familial link of illness/disease)
-Pts perception of the seriousness of the illness
(percieved threats of illness and cues to action- campaings, advice from others)
-The likelihood that a pt. will take preventive action (results from pts perception of the benefits of and barriers to taking action
ex: lifestyle change, search for medical advice)
Discuss the Health Promotion model-
Increases individual well-being and self- actualization. Defines health as a positive dynamic state, not merely the absence of disease. 3 factors/functions.
Not for use in families or communities.
Health Promotion Model- 3 factors/functions
- Cognitive- perceptual factors (Individual perceptions)
- Modifying factors (demographic and social)
- Participation in health- promoting behaviors (likelihood of action)
Describe the Holistic Health Model?
Promote optimal health by incorporating active participation of the pt. in improving the health state.
-Empowers pts. to engage in their own healing process
Holistic Health Model is also called?
complementary or alternative medicine
What are some common myths and stereotypes about older adults? How are they facilitated/supported? Why is it important that nurses not follow myths/sterotypes?
Common myths and stereotypes about older adults are found throughout society and are often supported by media reports of problematic older adults. Commonly held misconceptions may lead to errors in assessments and unnecessary limitations to interventions. They include: old people are rigid, cannot learn new skills as well as younger people can, are ill, are not or should not be sexually active, are terrible drivers,old men are perverts, and forgetfulness is a sign of senility.
Old women are______, Old people can't __________.
Types of community-based and institutional health care services available to older adults include?
- Medicare
- Retirement communities
- Continuing care retirement communities (CCRCs)
- Congregate housing
- Adult day care programs
- Home health care
- Long-term care facilities
What is a Retirement community?
Retirement communities: age-segregated, self-contained developments that provide social activities, security, and recreational facilities.
Explain a retirement community, what is it set up for?
What are CCRC'S?
Continuing care retirement communities (CCRCs): Retirement communities that offer expanded health care and social support services, including long-term care. They require an entrance and monthly fees for continuing care.
Continuing care retirement communities; How are they different from retirement communities?
Congregate housing provides services at 2 levels, what are they? Describe each-
Independent and Assisted living.
- Independent living facilities provide housing and congregate meals, but no supervision.
- Assisted-living facilities are designed to provide housing and personalized health care.
What do adult day care programs provide?
Adult day care programs: provide daily supervision, social activities, and ADLs assistance for two major groups of older adults-persons who are cognitively impaired and persons who have problems with ADLs.
What are long-term care facilities used for?
Long-term care facilities: A placement altenative for the older adult who can no longer live alone, who needs continuous supervision, who has 3 or more ADLs disabilities, or who is frail.
Discuss common developmental tasks of older adults-
Developmental tasks of older adults include ADLs (activities of daily living) such as bathing, dressing, eating, toileting, and transfer. IADL's (instrumental activities of daily living) include using a telephone, shopping, preparing food, housekeeping, doing laundry, arranging transportation, taking medications, and handling finances.
ADL's and IADL's
Describe selected health concerns of older adults-
Selected health concerns of older adults include: SPICES
Sleep disorders
Problems with eating or feeding
Evidence of falls
Skin breakdown
What are common physiological changes in aging?
- Cardiovascular
(decreased cardiac output)
- Respiratory
(Impaired gas exchange, shallow/ difficulty breathing)
- Integumentary
(Impaired skin integrity; thin,sagging skin)
- Urinary
(Impaired fluid volume & Deficient elimination)
- Musculoskeletal
(risk of injury, Osteoporosis)
- Reproductive
(Disturbed body image, menopause,sexual dysfunction)
- Gastrointestinal
(Constipation, imbalanced nutrition)
- Nervous
(Disturbed thought processes)
- Senses
(impaired verbal communication; social isolation)
- Immune system
(Risk for infection)
Nursing interventions related to the physiological, cognitive, and psychosocial changes of aging include
Geriatric rehabilitation Assistive devices
Environmental safety Medication use
Behavioral management
Describe geriatric rehabilitation
Geriatric rehabilitation interventions are focused on adapting to or recovering from disability; have 3 influencing factors.
Nursing Intervention
Give some examples of assistive devices, which are considered a nursing intervention for older adults.
Dentures, glasses, hearing aids, walkers, wheelchairs, adult briefs, elevated toilet seats, and skin protection devices all are assistive devices that can diminish disability in an older adult
Environmental safety is crucial in health maintenance of the older adult, why?
With normal sensory changes, slowed reaction times, decreased pain and sensitivity, changes in gait and balance, and medication effects older adults are at a higher risk for accidents.
Ex: of environmental changes that may improve safety are; tub and toilet handrails, and colored step strips.
"Safety-proofing" examples
Describe Behavioral management (as a nursing intervention), what pts. most often need this type of intervention?
used mostly in pts. With delirium or dementia; for problematic behaviors. must be plan interventions carefully. Redirect, remove unwanted stimuli, reassure the nurse is present for pts. safety, validate moods, do not threaten, monitor frequently.
Restraints, what are they used for?
2 types; Chemical and physical. Used only to ensure the person’s safety or the safety of others. Positive nursing actions can reduce the use of physical and chemical restraints. Should be used as a last resort and there must be a physician order to use restraints in the hospital or long-term care setting.
Common devices- seat belts, "geri-chairs", jacket vests. *Restraints do NOT reduce falls.
Explain impaired thermoregulation system in older adults. What intervention would be used to address this issue?
Older adults can’t react to extremes in environmental temperatures; The body of the older adult can not conserve nor dissipate heat as efficiently as younger adults therefore both hypo and hyperthermia (heat prostration) occur more readily.
*This age group accounts for the most deaths during severe cold/heat waves.
Addressed as a safety nursing intervention; nurse can provide valuable council in regards to environment safety.
What is ageism?
Ageism is negative attitude based on age

*Nurse should assess for perceptions of age
What are the major biologic theories of aging?
- Stochastic theories; Aging by chance (genetic damage)

- Nonstochastic theories; Aging NOT by chance (programmed cell-death)
There are two.
Describe each:

frail elderly:
young-old (55-75)
old-old (85+ yrs)
frail elderly (75+ usually have more than one chronic disease)
*don't have to be old to be frail
age of each groups