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31 Cards in this Set

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Define growth.
Growth is a physiologic increase in size through cell multiplication or differentation.
Define development.
Development is physiological, psychosocial, and cognitive changes occuring over a life span moving from simple to complex in an orderly sequence.
What is the BIGGEST factor influencing growth & development in children?
Nutrition.
What are the four patterns of growth & development?
Cephalocaudal

Proximodistal

General to specific

Specific to complex
Describe what Cephalocaudal means.

Also give an example of this.
Cephalocaudal means that things are developed from head to toe.

Example is how myelinzation of the nerve sheaths needed for muscle control starts in the head and works all the way downward to the toes.
Describe what Proximodistal means.

Also give an example of this.
Proximodistal means that things are developed from the inward to outward.

An example of this would be control over arms before hands before fingers.
Why is it when a baby is born they cannot control their head movement?
Myelinization of the sheaths that cover the nerves needed for muscle movement are not there when born.

They develop in a cephalocaudal pattern from head to toe.
When should a baby be able to have adequate cephalocaudal myelinzation to start controlling their heads?
At 4 months you expect to see a baby have adequate head strength.
Describe the General to Specific pattern of growth & development.
In regards to motor development, the infant will be able to grasp an object with the whole hand before using only the thumb and forefinger.

The infants first motor movements are very generalized and develop to more specific actions.
Do neonates experience pain?
Yes.

We use the NIP scale for this.
What is the difference between palmer grasp & pincer grasp?
Palmer grasp happens before a pincer grasp and it is a general holding of something against your palm.

Pincer grasp is when babies develop the ability to hold something between the thumb and finger.
How do we define fine motor movement?
Being able to pick up a pen or cheerio.
Give an expample of simple to complex growth and development?
Language development
What is the most rapid period of growth of a persons life?
Their 1st year of life has the quickest amount of growth.
How much does a 0-3 month old sleep per day?
Almost 20 hours per day.
How long until a childs posterior fontanel closes?
2 months of age
What happens to a babies birth weight by 6 months?
Birth weight MUST double by 6 months.
How quickly should a social smile develop?

What are they trying to do?

If this doesn't develop what it is a sign of?
Social smile should develop by 5 months.

They are trying to communicate with you by smiling.

If they don't it is a potential sign of autism or other developmental disorder.
By 9 months a baby should be able to ___ ___ by themselves without support.
Sit up.
When does a child usually develop a pincer grasp?

If they haven't developed this yet what would you tell the parents to do?
Usually a pincer grasp is developed by 9 months of age.

Ask them to start giving them Cheerios or finger foods to grasp.
When does a baby start to roll from front to back?
Usually starts by 5 months and can successfully do this by 9 months
What is object permanence?

When does this develop?
When you put a toy behind your back and the baby still knows it is there.

Younger than 6 months will not have this developed. Should be developed by 9 months.
When does a baby start to pull themselves up?
By 9 months they start to pull themselves up on things.
When does a baby start to take their first steps?
By 12 months a baby might start taking their first steps
A babies birth weight must * blank * by 12 months of age.
A babies birth weight must triple by 12 months of age
When should a baby be walking by?
A baby should be walking by 15 months.
When does the anterior fontanel close?
Anterior fontanel closes by 15 to 18 months.
What happens to metabolism of a 3 to 5 year old?
Slows down
What is the average age group that begins to master daytime potty training?
3 to 5 years old master daytime potty training
Which sex has the earlier groth spurt?
Girls
For this module, what are the 3 biggest things you want to understand to have success?
1. Understand growth & development milestones per age-groups

2. Know what are age appropriate toys

3. Explain and apply Erikson and Piaget stages to the growth and development of a child.