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121 Cards in this Set

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a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience
emotion
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physioligical responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
james-lang theory
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulous simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion
cannon-bard theory
Schachter-Singer's theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2)Cognitively label the arousal
two-factor theory
a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion
polygraph
emotional release. in psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that 'releasing' aggressive energy releaves aggressive urges
catharsis
peoples tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
feel-good, do-good phenomenon
self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life
subjective well-being
our tendency to form judgements relative to a neatral level defined by our prior experience
adaptation-level-phenomenon
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
relative deprivation
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
motivation
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
instinct
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
drive-reduction theory
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
homeostasis
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then physiological needs become active
hierarchy of needs
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities, helps govern the endocrine system via the petuitary gland, and is linked to emotion
hypothalamus
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. when its levels are low, we feel hunger
glucose
the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lower metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight
set point
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
basal metabolic rate
an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet still feeling fat, continues to starve
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
bulimia nerviosa
a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning
sexual disorder
a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males.
estrogen
the most important of the male sex hormones. both genders have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the developement of the male sex characteristics during puberty
testosterone
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex, or the other sex
sexual orientation
a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills
flow
th application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
industrial-organizational psychology
a subfield of I/O psychology tgat focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, trainng, appraisal, and development
personnel psychology
a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences of worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change
organizational psychology
interview process that askks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales
structured interviews
a desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard
achievement motivation
goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals
task leadership
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
social psychology
suggests how we explain someone's behavior- by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
attribution theory
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
fundamental attribution error
feelings, often based on our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects,people,and events.
attitude
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
a set of expectations about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
role
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent.
cognitive dissonance theory
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
conformity
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
normative social influence
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior
norm
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
social facilitation
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
social loafing
a loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
deindividuation
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group
group polarization
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
groupthink
an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members. prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action
prejudice
a generalized belief about a group of people
stereotype
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members
discrimination
"Us"- people with whom one shares a common identity
ingroup
"Them"- those percieved as different or apart from one's ingroup
outgroup
the tendency to favor one's own group
ingroup bias
the theory that prejudece offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
scapegoat theory
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
just-world phenomenon
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
aggression
the principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger, which can generate aggression
frustration-aggression principle
the situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
social trap
the phenomenen that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
mere exposure effect
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
passionate love
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
compassionate love
a condition in which people recieve from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
equity
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
self-disclosure
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
altruism
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
bystander effect
an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them
social-responsibility norm
every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us
environment
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
behavior genetics
twins who develop from a single fertalized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms
identical twins
twins who develop from seperate fertalized eggs. they are genetically no closer than bro's and sis's, but they share a fetal environment
fraternal twins
a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
temperment
the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity)
interaction
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
culture
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. proper behavior
norm
the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies
personal space
giving priority to one's own goals over group goals, and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
individualism
giving priority to the goals of one's group (often family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly
collectivism
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
aggression
the sex chromosome found in both men and women. girls have 2, guys 1. one from each parent makes a girl
X chromosome
the sex chromosome found only in males. when paired with X from the mother, it makes a boy
Y chromosome
the most important of the male hormones. guys and girls have it, but males have more, so they grow wiener and balls
testosterone
a set of expectations about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
role
a set of expected behaviors for males and for females
gender role
one's sense of being a dude, or a chick
gender identity
the aquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
gender typing
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
social learning theory
theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly
gender schema theory
a branch of phycology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
developmental psychology
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and developes into an embrio
zygote
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the 2nd month
embryo
the developing human organism from about 9 weeks after conception to birth
fetus
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
teratogens
physical and cognitive abnormalties in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation.
habituation
biological growth process that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
maturation
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
schema
interpreting ones new experience in terms of ones existing schemas
assimilation
adapting ones current understandings (Schemas) to incorperate new information
accommodation
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
cognition
in piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 yrs of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory empressions and motor activities
sensorimotor stage
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not percieved
object permanence
in Piaget's theory, the stage (froma about 2-6) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
preoperational stage
the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
conservation
in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty in taking anothers point of view
egocentrism
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
theory of mind
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind
autism
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive developement (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
concrete operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive developement (normally beginning at about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract objects
formal operational stage
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning at about 8 months of age
stranger anxiety
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing destress on seperation
attachment
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper developement
critical period
the process by which certain animals form attachments dering critical period very early in life
imprinting
according to Eric Ericson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
basic trust
(1) a sense of one's identity and personal worth. (2) all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves,in the answer to the question, "who am I?"
self-concept
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
adolescence
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
puberty
the body structures that make sexual reproduction possible
primary sex characteristics
nonreproductive sexual charachteristics, such as female hips and boobs, male voice quality, and body hair
secondary sex characteristics
the first menstrual period
menarche
one's sense of self; according to erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating warious roles
identity
in Ericson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood
intamacy