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120 Cards in this Set

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Physical (Mechanical) Weathering
results in increased surface area for chemical reactions to occur on.
Exfoliation Weathering
resutls from expansion of plutons that formed under great pressure, but have been exposed by uplift and erosion.
Thermal Weathering
repeated daily healing and cooling of rock, expand-heat contract-cool
Frost Shattering
expansion of water when it freezes in cracks can produce enough force to crack rocks
Rock Abrasion
some force cause 2 rock surfaces to come together causing mechanical wearing and grinding to surface
Crystallization
as saline water moves into rock fractures and evaporate salt crystals form
Chemical Weathering
decomposition of parent material to produce new minerals and ions
Biological Weathering
disintegration of rock and mineral due to chemical and or physical agents of a living organism
Formation of Sedimentary Rocks
1. Weathering
2. Transportation
3. Deposition
4. Compaction
5. Lithification
Lithification
when rock hardens
Clastic(Detrital) Rocks
classified according to the size of their sediments
Non-Clastic Rocks
form from the precipitation of minerals from water or from the breakdown of the shells and bones of organisms.
Root Wedging
when a tree or other plant sinks its root system into existing rock joints and rock fractures.
Major types of Clastic Rocks
Sandstone
Conglomerate & Breccia
Shale
Clastic Rocks
Boulder
Cobble=64-256
Pebble
Sand=0.0625-2
Silt
Clay= 0.002
Clastic(Detrital) Rocks
classified according to the size of their sediments
Non-Clastic Rocks
form from the precipitation of minerals from water or from the breakdown of the shells and bones of organisms.
Root Wedging
when a tree or other plant sinks its root system into existing rock joints and rock fractures.
Major types of Clastic Rocks
Sandstone
Conglomerate & Breccia
Shale
Clastic Rocks
Boulder
Cobble=64-256
Pebble
Sand=0.0625-2
Silt
Clay= 0.002
Cross Bedding
form in any environment where wind or water flows and sand or gravel exists on the bed of the system.
Graded Bedding
characterized by a progressive decrease in the grain size upward through the bed.
Ripple Marks
occur due to movement in water and the mark is left behind in the rock; get solidified into rock layers
Mud Cracks
occur when the water evaporates and the mud begins to lose its moisture.
Sole Marks
irregularity on the bottom of a rock layer,cast of a depression on the top surface of the immediately underlying rock bed.
trace fossils
occur when an organism left evidence that it once existed in the fossil record such as a foot print
Eolian Environment
Desert, arid regions
Swamp Environment
Shale and Mud, humid region contain plant and tree life in still water condition
Lacustrine Environment
Lake, non-marine water, low energy
Glacial Environment
sediment in Glaciers
Marine Environment
salt water,
Shoreline Environment
areas along continental edges
Fluvial Environment
flow of continental water over/ through Earth's surface
Phaneritic Texture
large crystals that are clearly visible to the eye
Aphanitic Texture
small crystal texture, result from rapid cooling
Porphyritic Texture
2 minerals, large difference in grain size
Glassy Texture
non crystalline, no mineral grains
Vesicular Texture
vesicles within igneous rock, gas expansion bubbles
Pyroclastic Texture
numerous grains or fragments welded together
Rhyolite
extrusive
Granite
intrusive
andesite
extrusive
diorite
intrusive
Basalt
extrusive
Gabbro
intrusive
Felsic
65% highest percentage of silica
Intermediate
55-65% of silica
Mafic
45-55% of silica
Ultra-Mafic
less than 45%, unable to create today because not hot enough
Granitization
hot batholith pluton alters surrounding rock
Stoping
detaching pieces of country rock by rising magma. causes batholith to separate layers of country rock such as limestone
Dike
cut across existing rock layer
Sill
runs parallel to the existing rock layer
Volcanic Pipe/Neck
pipe:cylider,connects crater to magma chamber
neck:volcano erodes away and leaves neck
Laccolith
mushroom-like shape, pushes up surrounding rock but doesn't push through like a volcano
Batholith
intrusive plutonic structure, felsic/intermediate magma
Parent rock
Initial rock that gets changed due to metamorphism
What happens to the heat and or pressure intensity as the grade of metamorphism increases?
creates a new rock
Foliated Rocks
heated differential pressure causes minerals to arrange in parallel fashion
Non Foliated
minerals do not show a discerbable preferred orientation, made of mainly 1 mineral
___ & ___ of crystals determine what type of foliated texture a rock ha
Size and Shape
Examples of Foliated Rocks
Slate
Phyllite
Schist
Gneiss
Examples of non-foliated rocks
marble and quartzite
Why does metamorphism occur at Convergent Zones?
temperature and pressur eincrease in plate collisions
Gneiss
banded metamorphic rock, foliated,parent rock is igneous
Slate
fine grained metamorphic rock, smooth, foliated, parent rock is mudstone/shale
Marble
coarse crystalline rock, contact metamorphism, non-foliated
Quartzite
hardest metamorphic rock, non-foliated, med/high meta
Schist
foliated, med/high meta
Metaconglomerate
high grade metamorphism
Marble
coarse crystalline rock, contact metamorphism, non-foliated
Quartzite
hardest metamorphic rock, non-foliated, med/high meta
Schist
foliated, med/high meta
Metaconglomerate
high grade metamorphism
Fossil
Fossils are the remains of creatures which existed long ago. 
How old must a fossil be?
10,000 years old
What is the most common rock type fossils are found in? Why?
sedimentary,deposited on the surface of the earth in lakes, swamps, etc.
Isotopes
atoms of same element with differnt # of nuetrons in nuclei
Radiometric Dating
takes isotopes and date by looking at half life
Half Life
how long it takes half of the parent isotopes to decay
Ruidium87 half life
49 years
Thorium232 half
14 years
Uranium238 half life
4.5 years
Potassium40
1.3 years
Uranium235 half life
704 years
Carbon 14 half life
5730 years
Lead210 half life
22 years
Beryllium7
53 years
MEE
Mass Extinction Event
How many MEE have occured throughout geologic time?
6
Index Fossil Requirements
-Abundant and widespread in rock layers of a certain geologic time frame.

-Restricted to a limited thickness of strata from a certain geologic time frame.
Index Fossil
found in sedimentary rocks formed in depositional environments such as open oceans, tropical lagoons, etc.
Body Fossil
actual biological component ex. shell
Trace Fossil
evidence that animal once existed
ex. footprint
Unaltered Preservation Types
-mummification
-freezing
-amber
-tar pit
Alter Preservation Types
-replacement
-recrystallization
-carbonization
-permineralization
-petrification
Replacement
molecule by molecule subsitution
Recrystallization
recrystallize into more stable compound
Carbonization
leaves behind thinh carbon film picture
Permineralization
filling of pores
Petrification
chemical reactions take place, growth of mineral crystals
How is petrification different from Permineralization?
permineralization makes fossil much heavier, petrification eventually turns into rock
Tracks
footprints, trackways
Trails
crawling traces
Burrows
excavation of an animal made into soft sediment
Boring
holes made by an animal into shells
Gastrolith
highly polished gizzards of birds
Coprolites
fossilized poop
Cast
reproduction of plant and animal remains
Mold
preserving shape of original remains
Pseudofossils
impressions or markings found in rocks
ex:Chert of Flint nodules in limestone resemble marine fossils
Linnaean Classification
-Kingdom
-Phylum
-Class
-Order
-Family
-Genus
-Species
Phylum Porifera
sponges
Phylum Bryozoa
moss animals
Phylum Cnidaria
corals
Phlyum Brachiopoda
invertebrates
Phylum Mollusca
Molluscs
Phylum Arthropoda
insects, biggest kingdom
Phylum Echinodermata
sea urchin/sand $
Phylum Chordata
animal, not all vertebrate, reptiles,human, bird, etc.