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388 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
co2 pressure
primary determinant of respiration
perfusion
sending blood to vessel, where low CO2 gets O2 blood
lymph vessels are
leakier than blood vessels
in pulmonary circuit
high CO2 gets O2 and blood
O2 determines
perfusions
CO2 determines
ventilation
lymphatic vessels
start in tissue
respiratory restrictive disease
lung can't comply and distend, lung is stiffened everywhere
respiratory obstructive disease
takes longer to breathe, due to obstruction or narrowing
vital capacity
all air you can willfully move
inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
amount you dont use or inspire when at rest
tidal volume
amount exhaled inhaled during quiet ventilation at rest
movement of lymph caused by
pulsation of arteries
superficial lymphatic vessels run
with veins
deep lymphatic vessels run
with arteries
lymph nodes
4 ways in, 2 ways out (4 afferent are going in, and 2 efferent exits)
b cells, plasma cells, t cells
are in lymph nodes
germinal center
multiplying b cells
medulla
macrophages and plasma cells
spleen
like a lymph node but instead of being in line with lymphatic system it is in line WITH THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM receiving blood
spleen contents flow to
liver
macrophages in spleen
remove old blood cells
spleen has thin fibrous capsule
fragile
everything below diaphragm and also above the diaphragm to the RIGHT of the midline
thoracic duct
everything to the right of the midline above the diaphragm
uses right lymphatic duct
first job of lymphatic system to
return interstitial fluid and proteins back to circulatory system
second job of lymphatic system is to
house portions of the immune system
palatine and lingual tonsils are made of
Non-keratinized stratified squamous
third job of lymphatic system is to
absorb dietary fats from the small intestine
thoracic duct (lymphatic system)
thoracis duct begins at vertebrae T-12 at the Cisterna Chyli
thoracic duct flows anterior to
vertebral column
thoracic duct dumps its contents
at left side where jugular vein and left subclavian artery come together, draining all lymphatic tissue below the diaphragm
lymphatic ducts - trunks
2 lumbar trunks, 2 medastinal trunks, 2 intestinal trunks
above the diaphragm, thoracic duct only handles
left arm left thorax and left side of face
below the diaphragm
thoracic duct
immune system
a diffuse organ system
immune system components are
cells and plasma proteins and organs
a few parts of immune system belong to
integumentary or digestive system
job of immune system
resistance to INFECTIOUS disease and NEOPLASTIC diseases (cancers), no degenerative disease
innate immune system
generalized defense
adaptive immune system
highly selective
tonsils
oval-shaped masses of lymphatic tissue (concentrations of lymphocytes and macrophages) strategically located to defend the body against bacteria and viruses entering the body through the mouth or nose
humoral portion
part of adaptive immune system
innate defenses are divided into:
surface barriers and INTERNAL DEFENSES
Dendritic cells engulf
exogenous pathogens, such as bacteria, parasites or toxins in the tissues and then migrate, via chemotactic signals, to the T cell enriched lymph nodes
internal defenses
cellular components, proteins and processes
surface barriers of the innate immune system
passive channel (skin)
internal defenses of the innate immune system, INCLUDE white blood cells (WBCs) which are
The innate leukocytes include: Natural killer cells, mast cells, eosinophils, basophils; and the phagocytic cells including macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells, and
opsonizing
is coating, the surface of the pathogen.
negative pressure
keeps lungs distended
Exogenous antigens -- MHC class II -- CD4+ helper T-cells.
Exogenous antigens are usually displayed on MHC class II molecules, which activate CD4+ helper T-cells.
Endogenous antigens -- MHC class I molecules -- CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells.
Endogenous antigens are typically displayed on MHC class I molecules, and activate CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells.
All white blood cells (WBC) are known as leukocytes.
Leukocytes are different from other cells of the body in that they are not tightly associated with a particular organ or tissue; thus, they function similar to independent, single-celled organisms.
plasma cells
Specialized B cells which churn out antibodies—more than two thousand per second. Most of these die after four to five days;
With the exception of non-nucleated cells (including erythrocytes), MHC class I is expressed by all host cells.
MHC Class 1 -- on all cells
MHC class 2 is where?
MHC Class 2 -- non nucleated erythrocytes and other cells
erythrocytes -
RBC red blodd cell
leukocyte
WBC white blood cell
everyone has a
type 1 MHC
monocytes
Large, agranular leukocytes with relatively small, eccentric, oval or kidney-shaped nuclei.
type 1 MHC
endogenous
type 1 MHC
CD8 Cells - type 1 times 8
In order to kill, CD8 cells need to be
stimulated and co-stimulated
Antigen presenting cells
wont get killed by CD8 Tc cytotoxic cells if they dont co-stimulate
helper T cells
CD4
2 types helper T cells
Helper t cells one and TWO. type one is really Cytotoxic T cells Tc, and Type TWO is regular helper T cells aka beta cells
type one helper t cells
endogenous
type two helper t cells
exogenous
phagocytosis
invariate chain
invariate chain purpose
prevent class 2 MHC from binding endogenous proteins in endoplasmic reticulum
phago lysosome can
remove invariate chain
positive selection
making sure T-cells bind to MHC of your body
negative selection
the only type of selection for B cells
t cells
these cells leave the marrow at an early age and travel to the thymus, where they mature. Here they are imprinted with critical information for recognizing “self” and “non-self” substances.
b cells
B cells spend their entire early life in the bone marrow. Upon maturity, their job is to travel throughout the blood and lymph looking for antigens with which they can interlock.



Once a B cell has identified an antigen, it starts replicating itself. These cloned cells mature into antibody-manufacturing plasma cells.
b cells
is presented antigens and b cell is eliminated if it reacts to antigens
dendritic cells
Mostly found in the skin and mucosal epithelium, where they are referred to as Langerhan's cells. Unlike macrophages, dendritic cells can also recognize viral particles as non-self. In addition, they can present antigens via both MHC I and MHC II, and can thus activate both CD8 and CD4 T cells, directly.
clonal selection
how the immune system responds to infection and how certain types of B and T lymphocytes are selected for destruction of specific antigens invading the body.
memory cells
Specialized B cells which grant the body the ability to manufacture more of a particular antibody as needed, in case a particular antigen is ever encountered again.
macrophage
Literally, “large eaters.” These are large, long-lived phagocytes which capture foreign cells, digest them, and present protein fragments (peptides) from these cells and manifest them on their exterior. In this manner, they present the antigens to the T cells.



Macrophages are strategically located in lymphoid tissues, connective tissues and body cavities, where they are likely to encounter antigens. They also act as effector cells in cell-mediated immunity.
clonal selection's effect on b and t cells
Clonal selection is an important immunological process that determines which B and T lymphocytes, types of white blood cells, will be produced in large quantities.
t and b cells are the
the lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system.
clonal selection works by
clonal expansion. You only have one cell to begin with that recognizes a given pathogen, but once that cell sees the pathogen it is able to recognize, it rapidly divides, producing thousands of copies of itself. Quite literally, the cell clones itself, expanding the population of lymphocytes able to fight the infection: hence, clonal expansion.
why does clonal selection work
The T's were able to clonally expand because they were the only cells that were able to "see" that pathogen because of their unique receptor
antigen-presenting cells
Cells which do not have antigen-specific receptors. Instead, they capture and process antigens, present them to T cell receptors. These cells include macrophages, dentritic cells and B cells.
two types of human immunity
The human immune system is divided into two main parts: humoral immunity, which deals with infectious agents in the blood and body tissues, and cell-mediated immunity, which deals with body cells that have been infected.
humoral system is managed by
B-cells
cell-mediated system is managed by
T-cells
The humoral system of immunity is also called the
antibody-mediated system because of its use of specific immune-system structures called antibodies.
Antibodies (or immunoglobulin, Ig), are
large Y-shaped proteins used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects
In mammals there are five types of antibodies
IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM
macrophages digest the infectious agent and then
display some of its components on their surfaces.
most innate immune leukocytes cannot divide or reproduce on their own, but are
the products of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow
displays from macrophages are recognized by
helper-T cells, which activate their immune response, and multiply rapidly. This is called the activation phase.
Natural killer cells, mast cells, eosinophils, basophils; and the phagocytic cells including macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells
innate leukocytes
after the activation phase is the effector phase, which is when:
The next phase, called the effector phase, involves a communication between helper-T cells and B-cells. Activated helper-T cells use chemical signals to contact B-cells, which then begin to multiply rapidly as well. B-cell descendants become either plasma cells or B memory cells. The plasma cells begin to manufacture huge quantities of antibodies that will bind to the foreign invader (the antigen) and prime it for destruction. B memory cells retain a "memory" of the specific antigen that can be used to mobilize the immune system faster if the body encounters the antigen later in life.
negative selection is important because
negative selection is important as it eliminates cells that might otherwise mount an autoimmune attack. It is one of the ways in which tolerance to self antigens is achieved.
A response to an agent against which the body has already formed memory cells is called a
secondary response.
Clonal selection operates among the B and T cells of the immune system to
select for replication only those that respond to a particular antigen.
antibody that crosses placental barrier
IGG
iGM
initial
iGM
pentamers
antibody of secretions
IGA
IGA
helps your ability to produce mucosal SECRETIONS
IGD
the immunoglobulin of B cell surfaces
IGG
most abundant immunoglobulin of immune response
iGA
mother's milk
IGG and IGM
can combine compliment
residual volume
amount of air that REMAINS after exhaled ERV (after expiratory reserve volume is gone)
IGM size is
the largest
IGA
can be a monomer or dimer
IGA
antibody of secretions, reinforce EPITHELIAL MUCOSAL BARRIER
breast feeding
passive
IGD
the immunogblobulin of the B cell surfaces
IGD
brought into B cell by phagocytosis-like process
IGG
most abundant of later primary immune response and secondary immune response
IGM
the initial antibody
IGG and IGM
seen in some Type 2 hypersensitivity reactions and all Type 3 hypersensitivity reactions
IGD immunoglobulins
plant themselves on B cell surfaces and wait to be stimulated by antigens
When activated, mast cells rapidly release
granules, rich in histamine and heparin, etc
ACTIVE HUMORAL IMMUNITY
Active humoral immunity is the development of antibodies in response to stimulation by an antigen.
Once inside the cell, the invading pathogen is contained inside an endosome
which merges with a lysosome.
With active immunity,
antigens enter the body and the body responds by making its own antibodies and B-memory cells
Both passive and active immunity can be
either naturally or artificially acquired.
In passive immunity,
antibodies made in another person or animal enter the body and the immunity is short-lived.
Neutrophils, along with two other cell types; eosinophils and basophils (see below), are known as
granulocytes due to the presence of granules in their cytoplasm.
due to their distinctive lobed nuclei, NEUTROPHILS ARE:
polymorphonuclear cells
50 to 60% of the total circulating leukocytes
ARE NEUTROPHILS
passive, artificially aquired immunity
antibodies made outside or in someone else's body, placed in your body
active, artificially aquired immunity
you get vaccinated and your body makes its own antibodies responding to the threat
basophils
can cause type 1 hypersensitivity reaction
basophils fight by
degranulation
IGE
reagent when part of type 1 hypersensitivity reaction
IGE
stimulates basophils
Basophils jobs are to
AMPLIFY IMMUNE RESPONSE
BASOPHILS INCREASE THE NUMBER OF
eosinophils
Respiratory system is a physiological:
buffer that helps avoid radical swings in pH in the face of swings in hydrogen ion concentration
a buffer can absorb or release hydrogen as needed
as a pH stabilizer
pH is important to regulate because
our enzymes are pH specific and can become denatured
IGE
released by basophils
Basophils degranulate and release histamines which are
inflammatory agents
microglia are
the main resident immunological cells and macrophages of the CNS.
upper respiratory
in your head, sneeze if irritated, larynx and above
lower respiratory
trachea and below
CONDUCTING ZONE
MOVEMENT OF AIR
RESPIRATORY ZONE
GAS EXCHANGE
dead space
Anatomical dead space is that portion of the airways (such as the mouth and trachea) which conducts gas to the alveoli.
Eosinophils
Eosinophil: A normal type of white blood cell that has coarse granules within its cytoplasm. Eosinophils are produced in the bone marrow and migrate to tissues
turbinates or nasal conchae
creates vibration/turbulence, humidifies because it is dripping wet,.....covered in irrigated mucosa
turbinates or conchae
warm the air coming in
An antibody is made up of
two heavy chains and two light chains. The unique variable region allows an antibody to recognize its matching antigen
columnar pseudostratified ciliated epithelium
respiratory tract
lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages
can be AGRANULAR OR lacking granules
neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils
three types of granulocytes
T cells are useless without
T cells are useless without antigen-presenting cells to activate them, and B cells are crippled without T-cell help.
eosinophils make up
1–4% of leukocytes
larynx
columnar epithelium
larynx is
largest purest cartilaginous organ
epiglottis
elastic cartilage
basophils
1% of leukocytes
below the larynx is the
trachea
hyoid bone
allows speaking
larynx
houses voice box
behind arythmoid cartilage
are the vocal folds
vocalized sounds come from
voice box uhh eeeh oooh
articulated sounds come from
the mouth lips, like consonants
trachea
C-shaped cartilage so one side can stretch when food (bolus) passes
monocytes have a
kidney bean shaped nucleus
monocytes make up
2-8% of leukocytes
carina
looks like little underwear (bifurcation)
monocytes can develop into
macrophages later
lymphocytes have nuclei that
are very large and take up most of the space
lymphocytes make up
25-33% of leukocytes in blood
main stem > lobar > segmental
bronchus order
10 segmentals on right side, less than 10 segmentals on the left
number of segmentals
monocytes do not phagocytize until they become
macrophages
basement membrane in between epithelial cells
in respiratory system... no connective tissue
2 forces that can make your lungs collapse
elastic fibers and surface tension (of water and alveoli), the latter of which is stronger
microglia used to be
monocytes
80% of pressure is
nitrogen
20% of gas pressure is
oxygen
type 2 alveolar cells
produce surfactant
henry's law:
solubility of gas is dependent on pressure behind that gas and the amount of liquid it wil dissolve in
partial pressure
the pressure which the gas would have if it alone occupied the volume.[1] The total pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressures of each individual gas in the mixture.
not much CO2
in our atmosphere
TWO sulchi (or sulchus) in
right lung
One sulchus (or fissure) in left lung
left lung
hemoglobin - carries one oxygen molecule in each of its four
HEME
97% of O2 is carried by
hemoglobin.
Only 3 percent of O2 carried as
"free", diffused gas in blood plasma
neutrophils are a type of
myelocyte
leukocytes are divided into
myelocytes and lymphocytes
NK (natural killer) cells
are part of NONSPECIFIC, innate immune system
NK cells are the
lymphocytes of the immune system
somatic recombination
somatic recombination, is a mechanism of genetic recombination in the early stages of immunoglobulin (Ig) and T cell receptors (TCR) production of the immune system.
Classical pathway
used compliment proteins
The product of somatic recombination
Functional antibody genes...............Somatic recombination is the method by which functional antibody genes are created. It involves the rearrangement of many gene segments that code for the heavy and light chain proteins of immunoglobulins, and it only occurs in lymphocytes.
diapedesis
the movement of white blood cells, through intact capillary walls into surrounding interstitial space outside.
diaphragm
prime mover of ventilation
In order for leukocytes to perform phagocytosis, they have to leave the bloodstream by
diapedesis
interferons are part of the
innate immune system
leukocytosis
"long distance"
diaphragm
dome-shaped, has a central tendon, fibers run in a radial direction, fibers flatten when contracting the diaphragm, increasing volume of lungs
external intercostal muscles
makes chest/lungs WIDER and bigger outward
beta cells
become the giant lymphocytes known as plasma cells
beta cells secrete
thousands of antibodies
internal intercostals
pull ribcage INWARD and close the ribs
exhale with the
exhale with the internal intercostals
inhale with the
inhale with the external intercostals
interferon comes in 3 types
alpha, beta and gamma interferons
RECEIVERS OF INTERFERONS
TEMPORARILY ARE UNABLE TO REPRODUCE
classical pathway uses
antibodies
IGM and IGG help to
"fix" complement
type 2 and 3 hypersensitivity
IGG and IGM
type 3 hypersensitivity reaction
has to do with complement
hemoglobin is a quaternary protein which means
it is made up of individual protein chains
rectus abdominus
pull down on the ribcage - helping to exhale
transverse abdominus
increases interabdominal pressure by pushing up on the diaphragm
CD8 are the most
abundant lymphocytes
NK cells are a type
of small lymphocyte
Margination
accumulation and adhesion of leukocytes to the epithelial cells of blood vessel walls at the site of injury


in the early stages of inflammation.
antibodies
mark things
gene
portion of dna that codes for complete protein
pleura
has visceral layer that attached to outside of the lung
pleura also has
parietal layer that attaches to ribcage and diaphragm
All IGMS have
the same constant region
type 3 hypersensitivity reaction
EXCESSIVE AGGLUTINATION BY ANTIBODIES
CLASS 1 MHC
endogenous protein
Class 2 Major Histocompatibility Complex
Exogenous Protein
CD8 must be both
stimulated and costimulated
eustachian tube function
equalizes pressure
turbinates conchis' moisturizing function is important because
brittle dry lungs cannot diffuse gas
pneumothorax
a problem where the visceral layer or pleura and parietal layer can separate because air got in and they got punctured.
soft palate goes up when
swallowing
pressure in your lungs called
pulmonary pressure
pressure between layers of pleura
interpleural pressure
transpulmonary pressure
the difference between pulmonary pressure and interpleural pressure
lungs and thoracic cavity connected via
the pleura
the are how many openings in the esophagus?
two openings in esophagus
left lung is
smaller
2 sphincters in trachea
upper and also the lower (the carina)
less than one mm in diameter
bronchiole
terminal bronchiole
last part of conducting zone and beginning of respiratory zone
alveolar ducts lead to
alveoli channels
SEPARATE 2 LAYERS IN THORACIC CAVITY
CAUSES NEGATIVE PRESSURE
in lungs, plaque is replaced by
smooth muscle
exhalation is
passive
inhalation is
active and quick
residual volume
amount that remains after exhaled expiratory reserve volume
O2 determines perfusion and
CO2 determines ventilation
Temperature down
shift to the left
pH down
shift to the right
BPG
shift to the right
muscles of neck are accessory muscles for
inhalation
muscles below are accessory for
exhalation
functional reserve capacity formula
FRV = ERV + RV
acidosis
A greater number of hydrogen ions are present in the blood than can be absorbed by the buffer systems.
CO2 penetrates
blood brain barrier easily
peripheral receptors
act most importantly to detect variation of the oxygen in the arterial blood, in addition to detecting arterial carbon dioxide and pH.
ERV
What is left to exhale after a normal tidal exhalation.
FEV1 decreases as
airway radius is decreased
compliance
ability of lung to distend
alkalosis
when the concentration of hydrogen ions are decreased.
apoptosis
collapse on itself and scramble
liver
makes proteins of the compliment
anterior cervica lymph nodes
located beneath muscle
complement fixation outcomes
opsonization/phagocytosis, amplifying inflammation (C3a c5a), or cell lysis
Igm igg
classical pathway
C3
pathway
T cells signalled by
Contact
Macrophage stimulates cd4
And cd4 stimulates macrophage
Classical pathway involves
Antibodies
Adaptive immune system
Cellular immunity (t cells) , humoral immunity (b cells)
Thymus gland
Degenerates into fat after adolescence
Thymus gland
Develops t cell line
T cell receptors
TCRs (cd4 and cd8) interact with specialized receptors on all cells
Tc
Cd8 killer or cytotoxic t cells
Cd4
Amplify the immune response
Hiv virus attacks the
Cd4 or helper t cells
Helper t cells type 1
Amplify cytotoxic t cells
Helper t cells type 2
Amplify b cells
Th1
Killer t cells
Th2
B cells
Helper t cells amplify
Both innate.and adaptive immune cells
Cd4
Class 2 MHC
Cd8
MHC class 1
Protein on outside of MHC II
Signals to helper t cells
Signalling cell in MHC II
Is destroyed
Class 1 mhc
Has NO invariate chain
Endogenous proteins
MHC 1
Cd4 cells and antigen presenting cells
Both mutually stimulate each other in mutual amplification
Cytotoxic t-cells
Must be stimulated And co-stimulated in order to make perforin to perforate cells
FAS receptors
Cell's outer kill switch
NK cells cause
Apoptosis
lymph vessels
begin where capillary beds are, start in tissue
lymph vessels known as right thoracic duct
empty into superior vena cava
superficial lymphatic vessels
run with veins
deep lymphatic vessels
run with arteries
T cells
in transit in lymph nodes, transient
b cells and plasma cells
set up shop in lymph nodes
germinal center
b cells
medulla
macrophages and plasma cells
outside germinal center
antigen presenting cells
axilla, cervical, inguinal
outermost lymph nodes
IGM:
Expressed on the surface of B cells (monomer) and in a secreted form (pentamer) with very high avidity. Eliminates pathogens in the early stages of B cell mediated (humoral) immunity before there is sufficient IgG
IGG:
n its four forms, provides the majority of antibody-based immunity against invading pathogens. The only antibody capable of crossing the placenta to give passive immunity to fetus.
IGE:
Binds to allergens and triggers histamine release from mast cells and basophils, and is involved in allergy. Also protects against parasitic worms
spleen
storage area of iron, has thin fibrous capsule
IGD:
Functions mainly as an antigen receptor on B cells that have not been exposed to antigens. It has been shown to activate basophils and mast cells to produce antimicrobial factors
IGA
Found in mucosal areas, such as the gut, respiratory tract and urogenital tract, and prevents colonization by pathogens. Also found in saliva, tears, and breast milk
unloading oxygen in internal respiration
shape of hemoglobin changes so that it can bind hydrogen and CO2
internal respiration
gas exchange at systemic capillary tissue level... unloading of oxygen allows the ONLOADING of CO2...
Most of Oxygen is transported bound to CO2
...and 1-2% dissolved in plasma
hemoglobin must have
high pCO2 and low O2 tension so that arteriole opens up and allows O2 to be released by hemoglobin
7% of CO2 is carried as
gas in blood
carbonic acid
only volatile liquid acid (can turn into gas) in the blood
two types of acidosis
metabolic acidosis and respiratory acidosis
two types of alkalosis
metabolic acidosis and respiratory acidosis
when respiratory system cannot control the amount of carbonic acid
respiratory acidosis if too much, respiratory alkalosis if not enough
IGG
...is a monomer
IGM:
usually a pentamer
IGA:
DIMER
IGE
...is a monomer (G.E.D.)
breath faster:
CO2 drops
hold your breath:
CO2 rises
Bohr effect
relationship of hydrogen with hemoglobin molecule, affecting hemoglobin's ability to carry oxygen
majority of CO2 is transported
AS BICARBONATE AND DISSOLVED IN THE PLASMA
If you allow bicarbonate to leak out of the blood,
you will build up electropositivity in erythrocyte so chloride is used to balance that = CHLORIDE SHIFT
in areas of high CO2, oxygen is released
due to chloride shift
bicarbonate's outflow
is countered by chloride shift, which allows bicarbonate to leave cel without giving it a charge
due to chloride shift
hydrogen binds to hemoglobin, causing bohr effect, causing O2 release
chloride shift happens in
...systemic capillary bed
CO2 leaves capillary, following its partial pressure gradient
reaction to the left as CO2 leaves in alveolar air = HALDANE EFFECT
haldane effect is:
Deoxygenation of the blood increases its ability to carry carbon dioxide; this property is the Haldane effect. Conversely, oxygenated blood has a reduced capacity for carbon dioxide.
haldane effect is done because of -
co2 concentrations
bohr effect is initiated by -
the binding of hydrogen
ige:
hypersensitivity reaction type (ONE )1
peripheral receptors and central receptors affect:
three regulatory control centers (2 in medulla and 1 in pons) that accelerate or decelerate VENTILATION
CHEMORECEPTORS ARE IN:
NECK AND UPPER CHEST
CHEMORECEPTORS ALSO SEND SIGNALS
TO VASOMOTOR CENTERS
central receptors:
in brain's fourth ventricle....STIMULATED EXCLUSIVELY BY CO2, but not directly. hydrogen ions take care of stimulating central receptors with the help of carbonic acid...
peripheral receptors:
found at CAROTID SINUS AND AORTIC ARCH, sensitive to O2, CO2 and pH, can be stimulated by respiratory and metabolic acids
CO2 easily goes through:
blood brain barrier
afferent - all in
efferent - exit
lymphocytes
primary cells of lymphatic system, respond to internal&external threats
monocytes and macrophages
produced in red bone marrow
tonsils
lymphoid tissues
spleen and thymus
lymphoid organs
red bone marrow
helps lymphoid organs and tissues by making some lymphocytes of its own
hematopoietic stem cells-
Make both WBC's and RBC's
humoral immunity-
adaptive immune system
humoral immunity-
when things that circulating in extracellular fluids make you immune
extracellular fluid=
interstitial fluid, blood plasma, lymph,
nk cells are similar to-
t cells
phagocytes-
innate defenses
phagocytes:
myelocytes
neutrophils numerous
60% of WBCs
neutrophils lumpy nucleus means
polymorphonuclear cell
neutrophils conduct
phagocytosis, that is how they defend us
neutrophils, basophils and eosoniphils are all-
granulocytes
granulocytes degranulate and release-
hydrolytic enzymes to digest stuff they find
basophils ARE A TYPE OF-
granulocyte
basophils ARE-
capable of phagocytosis but their MAIN TOOL IS DEGRANULATION
MAIN TRICK OF -EOSONIPHILS
TO DEGRANULATE
histamines
react slowly
histamines
amplify inflammation by interacting with antibodies at receptors at the surface
innapropriate basophil triggering of HISTAMINE RELEASE causes:
type 1 hypersensitivity reaction
B cells begin to express both IgM and IgD when
when they reach maturity
eosinophils
bind with eosin.... eosinophils make up 2-3% of circulating WBC
basophils
make up 5% of circulating WBCs
lymphocytes made in the thymus are-
t cells
monocytes
are AGRANULOCYTES
MONOCYTES LAST FOR
A LONG TIME relative to other WBCs, monocytes stay a day longer in the blood stream circulating before they enter tissue
eosoniphils
FIGHT PARASITES using phagocytosis or degranulation if necessary
granulocytes
dont spend a lot of time circulating, only 8 hrs at most in the blood before they enter tissue
when granulocytes leave bone they are already:
ready to defend the body
monocytes are made in bone
when they leave they enter into circulation
when monocytes get into tissue
they grow and grow into MACROPHAGES
neutrophils are the pawns
giant macrophages are the rooks or bishops (more powerful) phagocytize hundreds of bacteria per minute.........................monocytes wander tissue like small tanks
microglia only leave the blood
ONCE
MICROGLIA ENTER BRAIN ONCE
AND CAN REPRODUCE IN BRAIN
NK CELLS
INNATE IMMUNE SYSEM
LYMPHCYTES AND MYELOCYTES
ARE THE TWO WBC types
microglia
Macrophage of the CNS
Phagocytes
eat destroy then present what they ate
microglia
a type of neuroglia, that is a tissue macrophage
vasodilation causes
increased perfusion of blood
during inflammatory response
capillary permeability is increased, so proteins like Fibrin escape