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67 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What schedule is cocaine?
Schedule 2
Typical uses of cocaine
Anesthetic, stimulant for ADD & narcolepsy
mechanism of Cocaine
slows reuptake of Dopamine, serotonin & norepeniphrine
cocaine -Effects: Low Dose
euphoria, anorexia, insomnia, increased mental acuity, increased motor activity, increased sexual desire, decreased sexual funtion
cocaine- Effects: High Dose
mood & personality disorders, toxic paranoid psychosis
1/2 life of cocaine
30-90 minutes
Tolerance & Dependance of cocaine
Develop rapidly and disappear rapidly.
Withdrawal symptoms of cocaine
anxiety, depression, paranoia, difficulty sleeping
Rat Study : cocaine
Rats will chose cocaine over food: shows high dependance
how many cocaine-exposed births per year?
50-100 K
Fetal effects of cocaine
may damage any organ or stucture (deformities, decreased blood flow to uterus->hypoxia (low O2)->microcephaly, growth retardation, brain deformities, sleep tremors, poor feeding, siezures, sids, irritability
-can bind to sperm
Cocaine derived from what?
Coca leaves
What is different about coca leaves than cocaine?
leaves are in natural form. cocaine is the isolated chemical. Not as concentrated in leaves, leaves also involved in rituals.
Significance of coca leaves to other cultures?
coca leaves contain protiens, calcium, phosphorus, vitamins a & e, & riboflavin. Source of these, plus used in rituals.
What was the wine called that had cocaine in it?
Vin Mariani
What is created by adding alcohol to cocaine?
What is Spiraling Distress?
term used to describe the feelings of cocaine users when they stop - depression with cravings, plus negative feelings.
what does cocaine do to your body?
increases heart rate, increases blood pressure, sweating, increases body temp. Long term: can harden arteries, insomnia, impotence (men), (women)- prevent reaching orgasm.
what are the effects of cocaethylene?
similar to cocaine, but with out some of the anxiety and neg. effects of cocaine. Metabolite crosses BBB and targets dopamine. also increases levels of glutamate. Makes it take longer for body to process drugs. leads to OD.
What is Crack?
cocaine hydrochloride + sodium bicarbonate (or ammonia) and then heated. forms a waxy looking rock. Smokable. Peak faster & higher. more addictive b/c of route of entry
What are some common names for amphetamines?
speed, crystal, ice, meth
What are the 2 types of amphetimines?
1-Dextroamphetamines (1/2 life=6hrs)
2-Methamphetamines (1/2 life=11hrs) Smokeable (crstallized meth- ice)
Effects of low dose of Amphetamines:
euphoria, alertness, excitement, reduced fatigue, anorexia, mood elevation
effects of high dose of amphetamines:
repetive behavior (animals will groom repeatedly), aggression, paranoia, anorexia, psychosis
Tolerance/dependance of amphetamines
very rapid
Withdrawal symptoms of Amphetamines
depression, sedation and craving
lasting effects of amphetamine use
deep sleep rebound (recovery can take weeks & months), lasting decreased dopamine & serotonin levels, alterations in sleep, sexual function, depression, and movement disorders.
Mechanism of Amphetamines
Releases catecholamines, increases dopamine, activates cortex and decreased deep sleep.
Metabolism of amphetamines
not metabolized in liver, excreted unchanged. Since it is base, the more acidic urine, the more will be removed. Treatment sometimes involves acidifying the urine.
What is the order of Amphetamine use?
Smoke -> Rush -> High -> Binge -> Tweak -> crash.
How much caffiene is in one cup of coffee?
about 100mg
How much caffiene to overdose
About 5000 (50 cups of coffee) in one sitting
1/2 life of caffiene
3.5-5 hours, faster in smokers (1/2 as long), much slower in infants (85hours), pregant women- 10hours,
Effects of caffiene
alertness, faster and clearer thinking, wakefullness, improves ability to preform boring tasks or tasks when tired
Adverse: delicate coordination, math skills, timing
caffiene found in?
coffee, tea, soda, chocolate, pills, analgesics
Average caffiene consumption per person per day in US?
aobut 240mg
effects of caffiene on body?
slight stimulation of heart, dilates coronary arteries, constricts cerebral blood vessels, cardiac arrhythmias, bronchial relaxation, secretion of gastric acid, increased urine output.
What does caffiene effect in the brain?
tolerance & withdrawals of caffiene:
tolerance is quick
withdrawal: headaches, fatigue, drowsiness, negative mood.
What schedule drug is marijuana?
schedule 1
What does marijuana come from?
Cannabis: a flowering annual.
Stalks are used for rope and cloth, buds are used as drug.
When taken orally, what is the 1/2 life and peak of Marijuana?
1/2 life - 30 hours, onset in 30-60 minutes, peak in 2-3 hours. lasts about 5 hours
When smoked, what is peak & 1/2 life of marijuana?
1/2 life- 30 hours
peak - 10-30 minutes, lasts 2-3 hours
Why does marijuana eliminate slowly from the body?
b/c it is fat soluble and it enters the fat cells.
tolerance and withdrawal of marijuana:
tolerance develops normally and is mild, there are little to no withdrawals
Animal studies with marijuana:
not habit forming in animals. cannot train animals to self-administer (only drug to not be able to),. will chose food over drug.
Overdose of marijuana?
Never recorded. Lethal dose is 20000-40000x ED.
Effects of marijuana:
decrease in interocular pressure, bronchial dilation, can increase or decrease heart rate, anticonvulsive, mild analgesic, sleep time is decreased, may increase or decrease appetite, decreased time accuracy.
mechanism of marijuana:
receptors in brain - memory & motor control regions. none in brain stem. Many receptors. works on 2nd messenger system. 2 types of receptors: one affecting brain, one- periphial organs
Natural chemical for marijuna receptors:
Anandamide (purpose unknown) More receptors than any other
1. is marijuana Amotivational?
2-make you aggressive?
3-damage lungs?
4-interfere with memory?
1- no
2- no
3- yes. can lead to lung cancer. still carcinogen
4- can interfere with short term memory while under the influence, but no lasting memory problems.
Urine tests for marijuana look for what?
the metabolites: 11-nor-delta-9-thc-9-carboxylic acid (primary) and 11-nor-delta-8-thc-9-carboxylic acid
what are the 3 parts of cigarette smoke?
CO (carbon monoxide), tar and nicotine
what does CO do to body?
toxic gas, replaces O2 in blood, causes death by aphyxiation., causes cardiovascular disease.
what does tar do to body?
sticky and adhesive to lungs, paralyze cilia which allows carcinogens to remain in lungs
What is lethal dose of nicotine?
How much is in a pack of cigarettes?
lethal dose is a few drops (it is an oily, toxic drug) - 60 mgs.

A pack of cigs= 2-8 mgs of nicotine
1/2 life of nicotine (and peak)
1/2 life is 2hours. peak rapidly. many smoke every 20-45 minutes.
mechanism & effects of nicotine:
stimulates acetylcholine receptors (related to memory), speeds you up, releases adrenoline, inhibits GI activity (relaxes stomach muscles), increases blood pressure, heart rate, memory consolidation, attention, vigilance, rapid info processing. decreased muscle tone and decreased weight gain
tolerance & withdrawals of nicotine:
tolerance - rapid, very addictive. Withdrawals begin in 6 hours. BP & HR decrease, headaches, drowsiness, poor concentration, irritability, fatigue, insomnia, craving
past uses of tobacco:
rub juices in wounds, used as enemas for constipation and worms, blow smoke into rectum to revive drowning victim
vehicles of nicotine:
chew, snuff, cigars, pipes, cigarettes, patch, gum, inhalers, nasal spray & lozenges
Health consequenses of smoking
Cardiovascular, respitory disease & cancer
Cardiovascular: from smoking: how create problem and prevalance?
10% die due to smoking related CVD: cornory Heart disease--> low blood flow (from CO), arteriosclerosis (hardened arteries), atherosclerosis (clogged arteries), stroke
nicotine increases clotting, cholestrol, fat deposits and CO strains heart
Respitory Diseases & smoking: how and prevalance
60,000 deaths/year.
-chronic bronchitis (inflamed bronchial tissue from tar)
-emphysema (air sacs harden and burst, cant inhale and absorb oxygen)
Caner & Smoking: how and prevalance
30% all cancers linked to smoking, 90% all lunch cancer smoking related.
-Lung cancer- 125,000 deaths/yr 87% fatal w/in 5 years (smoke irritates and causes carcinomas to grow)
Risk for larynx, moouth, lip, bladder, pancreas, kidney, and cervix cancers.
Smoking and Pregnancy: fetal effects:
reduces O2 to fetus, leads to increased risk for miscarriage, stillbirth, early post-partum death, preterm births, irreversible intellectual and physical deficiencies, lower IQ, and higher ADHD.
Kids born to moms who smoked: boys- 4x likely conduct disorders, girls-5x likely substance abuser
-2000 infants die/year =smoking related
2/3 tobacco, 1/2 cloves