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16 Cards in this Set

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During sexual reproduction what happens to a gamete?
it fuses with another gamete to produce a zygote
Describe synapsis?
it is when homologues are paired closely together = xx
Describe interphase I in meiosis?
it is the same as the interphase in mitosis as replication of chromosomes occur
Describe porphase I in meiosis
crossing over between synapsistic homologues take place
What is meiosis?
it is the process of making haploid gametes or four daughter cells by sexual reproduction
Describe metaphase I in meiosis?
homologous chromosomes are held together by kinetochore on only one side as the joined pairs line up (in pairs)on the midline of the cell preparing for anaphase I
note: the pairs are not gender specific and are choosen randomly on which side the homolgous choromosome pairs will line up
Describe anaphase I?
pulls apart whole chromosome x, as the spindle pulls one to each pole as earlier noted there is a random orientation as to which side they go to
Describe telophase I?
bonus: are sister chromatids identical during meiosis or mitosis?
same as in mitosis

sister chromatids are identical during mitosis because in meiosis there is crossing over, eliminating identicality
What is the difference in interphase II?
there is no replication of the chromosomes and it is a brief process
Describe meiosis II?
p = no crossing over
m = chromosome line up like in mitosis
a = rips apart sister chromatids forming haploids
t = seperation into four haploid daughter cells
What is mammilian oogenesis?
germ cells go through this process in which cells start meiosis and then stop, re-starting only in response to specific signals

it also has unequal cytokinesis
What is asexual reproduction?bonus: why is sexual reproduction favored over this?
all chromosome are inherited from one parent

inability to get rid of mutations
What is parthenogenesis?
development of a male from an unfertilized egg, (including bees, whiptail lizards, amphids)
What are some advantages and disadvantages of sexual reproduction?
genetic variability

energetic costs while disrupting good gene combinations
What is nondisjunction?
it is the failure of homologoues or sister chromatids to seperate properly during meiosis
bonus:
a. what is the test called that checks for a chromosomal abnormality in a fetus?
b. what are the male and female chromosomes in birds?
amniocentesis

zw is female
zz is male